Chapter 8 Outline Ap World History

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Chapter 8 Outline Ap World History

By | March 2013
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Chapter 8 Outline I. In search of political and social order A. Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and his school 1. Confucius a. Educator and political advisor b. Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples 2. Confucian ideas c. Fundamentally moral and ethical in character d. Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order e. Concentrated on formation of junzi--"superior individuals" f. Edited and compiled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study 3. Key Confucian values g. Ren--a sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence h. Li--a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders i. Xiao--filial piety, familial obligation j. Cultivate personal morality and junzi for bringing order to China 4. Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school k. Believed in the goodness of human nature (ren) l. Advocated government by benevolence and humanity 5. Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature m. Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests n. Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society o. Advocated moral education and good public behavior B. Daoism featured prominent critics of Confucian activism 6. Preferred philosophical reflection and introspection, a life in harmony with nature 7. Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue) 8. Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy) 9. The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos p. Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world q. Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything r. Humans should tailor their behavior to the passive and yielding nature of the Dao...

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