Chapter 7 and 8 Study Guide: a Survey American History

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Key Concepts
1. Jeffersonian Vision for America
Society of Sturdy independent farmers: The American economy became more diverse and complex. Growing cities, surging commerce and expanding industrialism made the ideal of a simple agrarian society impossible to maintain. System of universal education: It floundered and institutions of learning remained largely the preserve of privileged elites. A federal government of sharply limited power with most authority remaining at the level of the states: Americans reflected a vigorous and ambitious nationalism reminiscent of the Federalists. Jefferson dismantled much of the bureaucratic power structure that the Federalists had erected in the 1790s, and he helped ensure that in many respects the federal government would remain a relatively unimportant force in American life. 2. Society and Women, early 1800s

MA in 1789 required that its public schools serve females as well as males. Judith Sargent Murray- look at People
Mercy Otis Warren- look at People
3. Education, access to (whom?)
The Republican administration was keen on giving equal opportunity for education for Americans but it largely remained for the elite. They were aristocratic in outlook, training for nations elite. 4. Medicine of the early 1800s

Most doctors studied medicine by working with established practitioners Some believed in the scientific method but had to deal with old prejudices and superstitions. Benjamin Rush, Physician
Said that a lack of adequate sanitation programs was to blame for disease
But was an advocate of techniques like bleeding and purging 5. Early American literary figures
Washington Irving- People
Noah Webster- People
Mercy Otis Warren- People
Charles Brockden Brown- People
Mason Weems:
Anglican clergyman, Life of Washington. Homespun man possessing simple republican virtues 6. Second Great Awakening
Message was individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives, must embrace a fervent, active piety, and must reject the skeptical rationalism that threatened traditional beliefs. But new denominations no longer accepted the idea of predestination. Popular acceptance of the idea that men and women could belong to different Protestant churches and still be committed t206o essentially the same Christian faith. Women flocked to these meeting which suggests that they were responding to their changing economic roles as well. They moved out of the home and into factories. African Americans:

Group of African American preachers. Some translated the egalitarian religious message that salvation was available to all into a similarly egalitarian message for blacks in the present world. Native Americans:

Neolin combined Christian and Indian imagery and bringing to Native American religion. He helped stimulate Indian military efforts of 1763 and beyond.
Handsome Lake ( a Seneca used to be an alcoholic) inspired many Indians to give up whiskey, gambling and other destructive customs derived from white society. 7. Industrial Revolution (England and the US, how did it start?) by the end of the 18th century it was well underway in many parts of the world. By the end of the 19th century the global process of industrialization had transformed the societies of Britain, most continental Europe, Japan, and the U.S. weaving-> spinning ->new devices for carding. For Americans the industrial revolution was largely a product of rapid changes in Great Britain, the nation with which they had the closest relations. America received more immigrants from Great Britain than from any other country. Samuel Slater:

Used the knowledge he had acquired before leaving England to build a spinning mill for the Quaker merchant Moses Brown in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1790. It was the first modern factory in America. 8. Cotton Gin (effects?)

Eli Whitney:
From MA and Yale Educated. Long-staple cotton smooth black seeds and long fibers but could...
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