Chapter 4 Notes ( Earth and Its People) 3rd Edition

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Chapter Four!
Greece and Iran 1000 – 30 B.C.E.
ⅠAncient Iran 1000 - 500 B.C.E
• Also known as the Persian Empire.
• Little written materials are left.
A. Geography and Resources
• Northwest Iran was more open to attacks by the nomads of Central Asia. • Irrigation in the first millennium B.C.E. enabled people to move to open plains so they could plant. • Under ground irrigation channels.

• Human survival depended on a delicate ecological balance. B. the Rise of the Persian Empire
• “Iranians” spread out across western and central Asia. Europe--- India • Medes was the first group to achieve a complex level of political organization. • Medes settled in the northwest and came under the influence of the ancient centers in Mesopotamia and Urartu. • Achaemendis (Persian rulers) cemented their relationship with the Median court through marriage. • 3 social classes: warriors, priests, and peasants.

C. Imperial Organization and Ideology
• Empire of Darius I was the largest in the world at that time. • Known as the second founder of the Persian Empire, after Cyrus. (His father - Cambyses) • Darius was divided into 20 provinces (States) and supervised by a Persian satrap, or governor and immortals Persepolis- Place where records, documents and writings were kept

• Democracy in Athens
• Athens had a form of taxes.
• Sophists – traveling teachers
• Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
C. Inequality in Classical Greece
• Slaves were non-Greek who were “living pieces of property” but were mostly treated humanely because they formed relationships with their owners. • Women in Sparta had rights and were outspoken and had public visibility. • Women of Athens had arranged marriages and were kept indoors and were only there to produce sons and take care of the house and the children, they would be allowed out sometimes to visit female relatives, funerals and certain festivals. • Bisexuality was common among men.

D. Failure of the City-state and Triumph of the...
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