Al-Mahdi- 775-785 CE, 3rd Abbasid caliph tried but failed to reconcile Shi'a to Abbasid rule and failed to resolve succession problem Harun al-Rashid- Great Abbasid ruler
Buyids- 10th century Dynasty that invaded and captured Baghdad. Ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan and kept Abbasids as figureheads Seljuk Turks- Central Asian nomadic invaders. Sunnis who ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from 11th century CE Crusades- Military adventures launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims. Temporarily captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms Salah-uh-Din- 12th century CE Muslim leader. Conquered most crusader outposts Ibn Khaldun- 1332-1406 century CE. Muslim historian. Developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors have cycle of 3 generations - strong, weak, and dissolute Shah-Nama- Written by Firdawsi in 10th-11th century CE. Tells history of Persia from creation to Islamic conquests Omar Kayyam-
Al-Razi- Classified material divided into 3 categories - animal, vegetable, mineral Al-Biruni- 11th century CE scientist who calculated specific weight of 18 major minerals Al-Ghazali- 1058-1111 century CE Islamic theologian. Tried to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions. It is not entirely accepted by ulama Sufis- Muslim holy men
Mongols- Central Asian nomads who smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms and captured Baghdad in 1258 century CE and killed last Abbasid caliph Muhammad ibn Qasim- Arab general who conquered Sind in India and declared region and Indus valley as part of Umayyad Empire Mahmud of Ghazni- 3rd ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan. Led north India invasions and sacked wealthy Hindu temple in northern India. Also gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression Bhaktic- Hindu groups dedicated to gods/goddesses. Stressed strong emotional bond between devotee and worshipped god. Shiva and Vishnu most widely worshipped
1. What factors led to the decline and collapse of...