1. Ottomans: Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
2. Mehmed II: Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
3. Janissaries: Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
4. Vizier: Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan.
5. Suleymaniye Mosque:
6. Safavids: dynasty: Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722.
7. Sail al-din: Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty.
8. Isma’il: Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor.
9. Chaldiran: Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.
10. Abbas I, the Great: afavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
11. Imams: According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from Ali.
12. Mullahs: Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism. 13. Isfahan: Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to...