Chapter 26

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January 13, 2013
Chapter 26 Notes (1865-1896)
* The Clash Of Cultures on the Plains
1) As the White settlers began to populate the Great West, the Indians, caught in the middle, increasingly turned against each other, were infected with White man’s diseases, and were stuck battling to hunt the few remaining bison 2) The Sioux, displaced by Chippewas from the their ancestral lands at the headwaters of the Mississippi in the late 1700s, expanded at the expense of the Crows, Kiowas, and Pawnees, and justified their actions by reasoning that White men had done the same thing to them 3) Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) and the Treaty of Fort Atkinson (1853) – The federal government tried to pacify the Indians by signing these two treaties with the chiefs of the tribes 4) After the Civil War, the U.S. Army’s new mission became, “go clear Indians out of the West for White settlers to move in” * Receding Native Population

1) Violence reigned supreme in Indian-White relations
2) In 1864, at Sand Creek, Colorado, Colonel J.M. Chivington’s militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood 3) In 1866, a Sioux war party ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman’s command of 81 soldiers and civilians who were constructing the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, leaving no survivors 4) Colonel George Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota (sacred Sioux land), and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux reservation in search of gold, causing Sitting Bull and the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custer’s Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process 5) The Nez Percé Indians also revolted when gold seekers made the government shrink their reservation by 90% 6) After a tortuous battle, Chief Joseph finally surrendered his band after a long trek across the Continental Divide toward Canada 7) The hardest to conquer were the Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico, led by Geronimo, but even they finally surrendered after being pushed to Mexico, and afterwards, they became successful farmers 8) The Indians were taken over due to (1) the railroad, which cut through the heart of the West, (2) the White man’s diseases, (3) the extermination of the buffalo, (4) wars, and (5) the loss of their land to White settlement * Bellowing Herds of Bison

1) The eruption of the railroad really started the buffalo massacre * The End of the Trail
1) Sympathy for the Indians finally materialized in the 1880s, helped in part by Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor  2) Ghost Dance- the sacred Sun Dance to Indians
3) Battle of Wounded Knee- the “Ghost Dance” was brutally stamped out by U.S. troops.This battle marks the end of the Indian Wars as by then the Indians were all either on reservations or dead 4)  Dawes Severalty Act- (1887) Dissolved the legal entities of all tribes, but if the Indians behaved the way Whites wanted them to behave (become farmers on reservations), they could receive full U.S. citizenship in 25 years 5) Reservation land not given to Indians under the act was sold to railroads * Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker

1) Fifty-Niners- were the gold seekers who streamed into the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory in 1858, but within a month or two all the gold had ran out 2)  Comstock Lode-  Was discovered in Nevada in 1859, and a fantastic amount of gold and silver worth more than $340 million was mined 3) After the surface gold was found, ore-breaking machinery was brought in to break the gold-bearing quartz * Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive

1) Demand for food and meat increased immensely
2) The problem of marketing meat profitably to the public market and cities was solved by the new transcontinental railroads. Cattle could now be shipped to the stockyards under “beef barons” like the Swifts and Armours 3) The meatpacking industry then sprang...
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