Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate. =TRUE
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
=by a decrease in the blood pressure
An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________. =1.001-1.035
Which of the following is the functional unit of the kidney? =Nephron
In which part of the kidney is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time, and (2) regulated by hormones? =Distal convoluted tubule
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________. =secondary active transport
Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of _______________. =Sodium
Each nephron consists of a _______________, which is a tuft of capillaries, and a ___________. =glomerulus; renal tubule
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________. =plasma protein
What type of capillaries make up the glomerulus?
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean? =Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition. =TRUE
Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH? | by producing new bicarbonate ions |
| by secreting sodium ions |
| by secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate |
| by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions|
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________. =glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
=impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Overall, which of the following pressures is ultimately responsible for glomerular filtration? =net filtration pressure
Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion? =angiotensin II and aldosterone
Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called _______________. =diuretics
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________. =Osmosis
If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________. =appear in the urine
Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)? =Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.
Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle? =form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
What is the largest component of urine by weight, other than water? =urea
In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically. =TRUE
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
=a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure
Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle? =vasa recta
The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH. =FALSE
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal? =Net filtration would decrease.
The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. =TRUE
The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
=constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure