From Roosevelt to Wilson in the Age of Progressivism
The Republicans Split
The Republicans were disappointed in Taft, the predecessor of Roosevelt. The conservative and progressive sides of the Republican Party split. Taft could not keep up with Theodore Roosevelt’s policies. The election of 1912 was going to be a very exciting election with Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson running. People were wondering about the evolution of social and economic effects on countryside industrial growth.
The Spirit of Progressivism
Progressivism changed all of America. New types of art came about. Progressives wanted to regulate big business not to harm it. Many were also a combination of evangelical Protestantism and natural/social sciences. Kind of came from populism. Reasons for progressivism varied.
The Rise of the Professions
Many contributed by organizational impulses. Such as National Child Labor committee. Law, medicine, religion, business, teaching, and social work all began to sprout as professions. New middle class that didn’t come from inheritance. Created profession societies. American Medical Association (AMA) doctors felt that they needed to have a minimum education policy for practice requirements. 2/3 of all doctors joined this group. Lawyers- Bar association, examining boards, and restricted entry. Teachers- National Education Association, etc.
The Social-Justice Movement
Social Justice Movement focused on the need for tenement house laws, child labor legislation, and better working conditions for women. Wanted social justice. Charity Organization Society of New York pulled in information from one place showing how bad it was, and that slums were popping up. Books were written like The Standard of Living Among Working Men’s Families in New York City about the harsh conditions.
The Purity Crusade
People began to notice the degree alcohol had on worker, as they would “drink away their wages”. Caused violence. Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) continued to grow. 18th amendment was finally passed prohibiting manufacture, sale, transportation, or in taking of alcohol.
Women’s Suffrage, Women’s Rights
Women played a major role in social justice movement. Pushed for better wages and better working conditions. African American Women formed their own organization. Carrie Chapman Catt became president of the Nation American Women’s Suffrage Association. Supported clean government and temperance. 19th amendment stated you couldn’t deny someone the right to vote because of sex. National Child Labor Committee, 28 states had laws regulating child labor. Woodrow Wilson backed to limit Child Labor with the Keating-Owen Act. Hammer v. Dagenhart overturned it as an improper regulation of local labor. Congress tried again, Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company again they failed.
A Ferment of Ideas: Challenging the Status Quo
Pragmatism, a new doctrine, Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory. It describes a process where theory is extracted from practice, and applied back to practice to form what is called intelligent practice. Brandies Brief in the case of Muller v. Oregon Supreme Court established protections for working women, it limited a 10 hour work day. Brandies Brief was based largely on sociological data rather than legal evidence. Expanding legal evidence. Socialism grew dramatically before World War 1. Even Social Democrat Party.
Reform in the Cities and States
Progressive reformers needed government to be more accomplished. Use of Federal power increased.
Interest Groups and the Decline of Popular Politics
Voters polls were less and less. South drastically fell.
Reform in the Cities
Government has basically ran itself for the past years. Reformers. National Municipal League was organized. Had debates over reform over civic reform, changes in the tax laws, and municipal ownership of public utilities. Tried to make it...