Chapter 2 Us History Notes

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II. What was the English Settlement like at Jamestown?
It survived thanks to John Smith and the production of tobacco A. What cause the struggle English settlers in America?
The first settlement was almost destroyed by disease and starvation. 1. What did the English have to do to make colonization a business? English were funded by joint-stock companies, which once the people had several investors, they obtained a charter or official permit. King James I granted a charter to the Virginia Company. Most stockholders would receive fourth-fifths of all gold and silver found. And the Virginia Company founded Jamestown 2. Why was the start disastrous?

At first, disease from the James River struck first. Hunger was right after it. Most colonist’s who weren’t used to the hard life refused to clear fields, plant crops, or even gather shellfish from the river’s edge. Once John Smith, took over the settlement, he forced the colonists to farm and do their work or they would not eat. He persuaded the Powhatan people to provide food as well. Smith got badly burn by an explosion, he had to return to England, and leave the colony to fend for itself. In 1609 600 new colonists arrived with hopes of starting a new life, although the scared Powhatan’s began killing off some of the livestock and farms although in the winter Jamestown had deteriorated to the point of famine. They ate roots, rats, snakes, and even boiled shoe leather. Only 60 colonists survived though. 3. What caused Jamestown to flourish?

They sailed down the James River, where they were met by a second English ship whose passengers convinced the fleeing colonist to turn around. Under the new eyes, the colonists worked harder and expanded down the James River and they began by developing the profitable crop: tobacco 4. What is “Brown Gold”? How long did indentured servants have to work? “Brown Gold” is tobacco. John Rolfe experimented by cross breeding tobacco from brazil with the weed that Native American’s had grown. Rolfe’s experiment resulted in a high-quality tobacco strain for which the citizens of England soon clamored. By the last 1620s, colonists exported 1.5 million pounds of “brown gold” to England each year. Indentured servants came from England to work as servants in limited amount of time. Under the Head right system anyone who paid for their own way over receives 50 acres of land. Indentured servants usually worked 4-7 years and came from a lower class of England. 5. What did the first African Laborers do?

First group arrive in 1619, aboard a Dutch merchant ship, they treated them as indentured servants at first, although it would be several decades before they became slave labor. One reason for this was economics; most indentured servants could be purchased for 1,000 pounds of tobacco. Servants could eventually become full members of society, but slaves were condemned to a life of harsh labor. B. What caused the clash with Native Americans?

Once the English settlers expanded their settlement, their relationship with the natives worsened, and the natives did not want to give up any more land. 1. What was the English pattern of conquest?

The English viewed the Native’s as “the wild Irish” and at the time, English and Irish could not intermarry nor wear English apparel or weapons. 2. What happened in the battle between the Native Americans and Settlers? The leaders of Jamestown demanded tributes of corn and labor from the local native peoples. They pressed the demands by setting the villages on fire and kidnapping hostages, especially children. One of the kidnapped children was the Chief’s daughter, Pocahontas who married John Rolfe in 1614. This laid groundwork for half-hearted peace that didn’t last, as colonists moved into more native territory to grow more tobacco. Although by 1622, English settlers had worn out the patience of Chief Opechancanough, Chief Pohatan’s brother and successor. Powhatan’s people had a well-planned...
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