Chapter 2 Outline and Key Terms

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Chapter
2

First Farmers

The Revolutions of Agriculture,
10,000 b.c.e.–3000 b.c.e.

Chapter Overview

CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

TO MAKE STUDENTS AWARE THAT AGRICULTURE EVOLVED INDEPENDENTLY IN SEVERAL REGIONS OF THE WORLD
To trace the development of agriculture and its local variations
To consider the social implications of the Agricultural Revolution

Chapter Outline

I.OPENING VIGNETTE
A.In the past two centuries, there has been a dramatic decline in the number of farmers worldwide. 1.United States an extreme case: only around 5 percent of Americans, many of them over 65 years old, were still on farms in 2000 2.great increase in the productivity of modern agriculture B.The modern retreat from the farm is a reversal of humanity’s first turn to agriculture. II.The Agricultural Revolution in World History

A.Agriculture is the second great human process after settlement of the globe. 1.started about 12,000 years ago
2.often called the Neolithic (New Stone Age) or Agricultural Revolution 3.deliberate cultivation of plants and domestication of animals 4.transformed human life across the planet

B.Agriculture is the basis for almost all human developments since. C.Agriculture brought about a new relationship between humans and other living things. 1.actively changing what they found in nature rather than just using it 2.shaping the landscape

3.selectively breeding animals
D.“Domestication” of nature created new mutual dependence. 1.many domesticated plants and animals came to rely on humans 2.humans lost gathering and hunting skills
E.There was an “intensification” of living: getting more food and resources from much less land. 1.more food led to more people
2.more people led to greater need for intensive exploitation III.Comparing Agricultural Beginnings
A.The Agricultural Revolution happened independently in several world regions. 1.Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia
2.several areas in sub-Saharan Africa
3.China
4.New Guinea
5.Mesoamerica
6.the Andes
7.eastern North America
8.all happened at about the same time, 12,000–4000 years ago 9.scholars have struggled with the question of why agriculture developed so late in human history B.Common Patterns

1.Agricultural Revolution coincided with the end of the last Ice Age a.global warming cycle started around 16,000 years ago b.Ice Age was over by about 11,000 years ago

c.end of Ice Age coincided with human migration across earth d.extinction of some large mammals: climate change and hunting e.warmer, wetter weather allowed more wild plants to flourish 2.gathering and hunting peoples had already learned some ways to manage the natural world a.“broad spectrum diet”

b.development of sickles, baskets, and other tools to make use of wild grain in the Middle East c.Amazon: peoples had learned to cut back some plants to encourage growth of the ones they wanted d.Australians had elaborate eel traps

3.women were probably the agricultural innovators
4.gathering and hunting peoples started
to establish more permanent
villages
a.especially in resource-rich areas
b.population growth perhaps led to a “food crisis” 5.agriculture developed in a number of regions, but with variation a.depended on the plants and animals that were available b.only a few hundred plant species have been domesticated c.only fourteen large mammal species were domesticated C.Variations

1.the Fertile Crescent was the first to have a full Agricultural Revolution a....
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