Chapter 2

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Human Physiology ZOOL 2404

Instructor: Dr. Gollahon

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Introduction Chapters 1 and 2
  Study strategies crucial for success
  Attend all lectures, labs, and study sessions   Read your lecture notes and text materials before listening to the audio or watching the video lectures   Devote a block of time each day to your Physiology course   Set up a study schedule and stick to it   Do not procrastinate!   Approach the information in different ways   Practice speaking and thinking in the language of Physiology   As soon as you experience difficulty with the course, seek assistance Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Introduction
Physiology is the study of function
  Biochemistry   Biology   Chemistry   Genetics

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Structure and Function
  Anatomy
  Describes the structures of the body
  What they are made of   Where they are located   Associated structures

  Physiology
  Is the study of
  Functions of anatomical structures   Individual and cooperative functions

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Levels of Organization
  The Chemical (or Molecular) Level
  Atoms are the smallest chemical units   Molecules are a group of atoms working together

  The Cellular Level
  Cells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together

  The Tissue Level
  Tissues are a group of similar cells working together

  The Organ Level
  An organ is a group of different tissues working together (cont) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Levels of Organization
  The Organ System Level
  Organ systems are a group of organs working together   Humans have 11 organ systems

  The Organism Level
  A human is an organism

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Homeostasis
  Homeostasis: all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal maintain a stable internal environment environment

  Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance)

Homeostasis
  Mechanisms of Regulation
  Autoregulation (intrinsic)
cell, tissue or organ   Automatic response in a cell, tissue,or organ to some

environmental change

  Extrinsic regulation
  Responses controlled by nervous and endocrinesystems nervous & endocrine system

Homeostasis
  Receptor
receives stimulus  -Receives the stimulus

  Control center
  Processes the signal and sends instructions

  Effector - effector
  Carries out instructions

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Homeostasis

FIGURE 1–3 The Control of Room Temperature.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Negative and Positive Feedback
  The Role of Negative Feedback
  The response of the effectornegates the effector negates stimulus   Body is brought back into homeostasis   Normal range is achieved

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Negative and Positive Feedback

FIGURE 1–4 Negative Feedback in the Control of Body Temperature.

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Negative and Positive Feedback
  The Role of Positive Feedback
  The response of the effector increases increases the change of the stimulus   Body is movedaway from homeostasis moved away from homeostasis   Normal range is lost

  Used to speed up processes

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

Negative and Positive Feedback

FIGURE...
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