Chapter 19 Apes Dq's

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1. Describe the controversy over whether carbon dioxide should be classified as an air pollutant. * 93% of CO2 emissions are natural due to the Carbon Cycle. The rest is from human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and clearing out forests. The EPA does not regulate CO2 emissions under the Clean Air Act, and many environmentalists disagree with this. However, the coal and electric businesses oppose the regulation of CO2 emissions because such a regulation would cost them money to cap emissions.

2. What is industrial smog, and how does it form? What are the causes of the Asian brown cloud, and what are some of its harmful effects? * Industrial smog is a harmful combination of SO2, sulfuric acid, and particulates. It is formed when carbon combines with oxygen to form CO, CO2, and leftover C; this makes up the particulates. SO2 is formed from coal and oil burning as the released sulfur combines with oxygen in the air; some of this SO2 converts to sulfuric acid when it reacts with water vapor. The Asian Brown Cloud is caused by high coal burning rates paired with a lack of pollution laws, since the Asian countries affected rely solely on this form of energy production. While under this cloud, photosynthesis is reduced, causing a decrease in crop production. Acid rain is also a huge problem as droplets from the cloud nuke lakes and forests. Premature deaths are common as this smog causes lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and severe allergic reactions. Climates are also being affected as rainfall patterns have shifted.

3. What is photochemical smog, and how does it form?
* Photochemical smog is a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants that react with UV radiation from the sun. * VOCs+ NOx+heat+sunlight→ground level ozone+photochemical oxidants+aldehydes+other secondary air pollutants

4. List five factors that can reduce air pollution and six factors that can increase air pollution. * See chapter outline notes,...
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