Chapter 19

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Chapter 19: Immigration, Urbanization, and everyday Life, 1860-1900

The New American City
* most changes in cities with urban growth fueled by
* migration from the countryside and immigration, created environment for economic development * b/w 1870 and 1900, population increased, 40% of population live in cities, * diversity of city threatened traditional expectations, rapid growth led to terrible living conditions and accentuated class differences * native born city dwellers unsatisfied with newcomers treatment; tried to clean away anything unnatural but America was becoming urban Migrants and Immigrants

* growth of industries in urban cities demanded more workers, because (pull factors): * Good wages, broad range of jobs, opportunity
* migration from rural areas increased, mechanization of farming in 19th century meant more male work leading to women moving to cites competing with immigrant black and city-born white women * from 1860 - 1890, prospect of better life attracted immigrants * Germans largest group, then English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish * By 1900, more than 800,000 French-Canadians migrated south to work in New England mills * Scandinavians rooted in farmlands of Wisconsin and Minnesota * On west, despite Chinese Exclusion Act, more than 80,000 Chinese remained in California and nearby in 1900 * earlier immigrants joined by New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe: * Italians, Slavs, Greeks, Jews, Armenians from Middle east, in Hawaii; Japanese from Asia * Would later boost America's foreign born population by more than 18 million * majority of immigrants settled in cities in northeastern and north-central states; Irish predominated in New England, Germans in midwest, high numbers of people larger than their home capitals * 4/5 people living in New York born abroad or were children of foreign-born parents * some recent immigrants forced out of home by overpopulation, famine, crop failure, religious persecution, violence, or industrial depression (push factors) * others came for opportunity, ex: over 100,000 Japanese laborers lured to Hawaii in 1890’s to work on sugar plantations by promises of high wages * Large number of immigrants were single young men who some returned home after they had become successful * Common for wives and children to wait back home until family breadwinner gets job and saves enough money to pay for passage to America * single women less likely to come but those who did mostly Irish who sent earnings back home * immigrants traveled first from Germany on a steamship to the US usually with bad conditions and causing illness and hunger * Immigrants with contagious and bad diseases are not allowed to pass through * Anglicized names of immigrants because were hard to pronounce * build Ellis Island in New York Harbor in 1982 where could exchange foreign currency, purchase railroad tickets,, arrange lodging Adjusting to an Urban Society

* immigrants relieved stress of adjusting to new life by living near friends and family (chain migration), many different nationalities grouped together in one area * used to believe settled together b/c of nationalism but was more complex, preferred to live near others from the same region * some adjusted easier than others; skilled workers familiar with Anglo-American customs had few problems, English speaking immigrants met little discrimination * ethnic groups that were huge part of population had advantage; Irish (16% of New York’s population) facilitated immigrants into mainstream by dominating democratic party politics and controlling church hierarchy * their success led them to be called “lace curtain” Irish, referring to their adoption of middle –class ideals * although large diversity of immigrants, were labeled as foreigners and some discriminated against and experience helped create new...
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