Chapter 17 the Cold War Begins

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Chapter 17 The Cold War Begins (1945-1952)
Postwar America
Fear: Americas were terrified the U.S. would fall into another depression and economic hard times would return
Problem: Finding jobs and housing for returning soldiers became a large issue

GI Bill of Rights/ Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944
* Stated that returning soldiers can now go to college at the governments expense * Each veteran could receive a low interest loan to buy a home, a farm or start a business * Veterans enrolled in school rather than taking up spots in the job pool * Promise of home loans created jobs to build homes for veterans and produce materials needed *

Baby Boom (1945-1960)
-More than 50,000,000 babies born in the U.S. during this time period

Suburban Growth
-People moved out into the suburbs as transportation became more readily available -Mass produced low priced homes (identical houses)
-1st Mass produced low priced community was in Levitt Town, New York

Rise of the Sunbelt
-People began to move from the north/west into the south
-Moved because they had lower taxes

Postwar Politics
-Truman was a very basic, honest, continue New Deal programs President - problem in office was inflation and strikes
Civil Rights:
-Truman was the 1st to began Civil Rights by desegregating forces -In Election of 1946 the Republicans took control of both houses, making it hard to get things done like FDR did

22 Amendment
-Limited the President to two terms
-Recation to FDR serving 4 terms and to prevent a Hitler or Stalin from taking over the US

Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
-Permitted states right to past “right ” laws
-outlawed secondary strikes
-
Iron Curtain
-Brought attention to the issues
-George Kennan expert on Soviet Affairs and advised Truman that he thought the best idea for communism as to contain it in one place (not necessarily get rid of it)

Truman Doctrine (1947)
-Stated that U.S. will give any aid to any European nations threatened by communists -1st Time Doctrine used was in Greece or Turkey proving the doctrine was effective -As much as the Republicans were anti-Fair Deal, they agreed communism needed to be contained

Marshall Plan
-Proposed economic package to all European nations
-Soviets rejected the aid because they didn’t want any American money -More than 12 million dollars sent to rebuild Europe
-Ended up being anti-communist
-Direct Result-> Postwar depression
-solidified communists in those areas

Korean War
-Japan had taken over Korea in 1910 and ruled it until August 1845 -North of the 38th parallel was the border between North and South Korea -On June 25th 1950, North Koreans attacked and crossed the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea -South Korea asked for help from the United Nations (FIRST TEST OF THE UN) -UN Branded North Koreans as the aggressors

-UN also asked member nations to provided troops (didn’t force) -UN commander of forces was Douglas McArthur
-In the summer of 1950 only area controlled by the United Nations was the Pusan perimeter -Sept. 15th,1950 McArthur makes a surprise landing at Linchon and then moves across the peninsula to cut off the North Korean supply lines -Oct. 1950 McArthur has pushed up to the Yalu River taking over almost all of North Korea -China enters the war and pushes McArthur back to the 38th parallel -Jan. 1951 to July 1953 the fighting in Korea was a stale mate (neither side was winning)

McArthur gets fired
-Publicly criticizes the Truman’s policies and advocates expanding the war by attacking China and using Nuclear weapons -Truman tells McArthur to stop criticizing the President and advocate bombing ->Truman fires McArthur because he fails to stop

Repatriation
-North Korea said that, “All prisoners of war must be given back to North Korea.” -UN says that if the prisoners of war don’t want to go back to North Korea they don’t have too (many prisoner’s life was better as prisoners...
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