•Therapy - treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively. •Psychotherapy - therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional. •Insight therapies - psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings. •Action therapy - psychotherapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly. •Biomedical therapy - therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms.
Treatment in the Past
•Mentally ill people began to be confined to institutions called asylums in the mid-1500s. •Treatments were harsh and often demanding.
•Philippe Pinel became famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness, personally unlocking the chains of inmates in France.
•Psychoanalysis - an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts. •Dream interpretation
•Manifest content – the actual content of one’s dream. •Latent content – the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams. •Free association – Freudian technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations. •Resistance - occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent. •Transference - in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist.
•Psychodynamic therapy - a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach. •Nondirective - therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks. •Directive - therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client’s statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions. Psychoanalysis today is more directive.
Roger’s Person-Centered Therapy
•Person-centered therapy - a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens. •Four Elements:
•Reflection - therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements. •Unconditional positive regard - referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy. •Empathy - the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client. •Authenticity - the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client.
•Gestalt therapy - form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing. •Try to help clients deal with things in their past that they have denied and will use body language and other nonverbal cues to understand what clients are really saying.
Today’s View of Humanistic Therapy
•Humanistic therapies are not based in experimental research and work best with intelligent, highly verbal persons.
Behavioral Therapy and Classical Conditioning
•Behavior therapies - action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior. •Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis – the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase...