Chapter 14: The Civil War

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Chapter 14 - The Civil War
The Secession Crisis
The Withdrawal of the South
* South Carolina voted Dec 1860 to secede, by time Lincoln came to office six more states (Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, TX) seceded * Seceded states formed Confederate States of America Feb1861. These states started seizing federal property but at first lacked power to seize the military instillations at Fort Sumter, SC and For Pickens, FL The Failure of Compromise

* Compromise proposed by Sen John Crittenden of KY proposed constitutional amdts w/ permanent slavery in slave states, fugitive slave returned. At heart was plan to reinstitute Missouri Compromise Line for western lands * Repubs rejected compromise. Lincoln came to office, stated: Union older than Const therefore no state could leave it, supporting secession= insurrection

Fort Sumter
* Forces in fort running out of supplies, Lincoln informed SC govt that supply ships were being sent. South feared looking weak, ordered General PGT Beauregard to capture fort. Bombarded April 12-12,1861. Fort surrendered * After defeat of fort Lincoln began mobilizing for war, but 4 more slave states also seceded- VA, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina. Other 4 slave states remained in Union- MD, Delaware, KY, Missouri) * Ppl in N&S had come to believe two distinct and incompatible civilizations had developed in US, both incapable of living together in peace

The Opposing Sides
* North held all the important material advantages- N had more than double the population (manpower for army and work force) advanced industrial system to manufacture war material (S had to rely on Eur imports), N had better transportation systems + more railroads * Advantages tempered b/c at first South fighting defensive war on own land w/ strong support of population. N more divided and support shaky throughout

The Mobilization of the North

Economic Measures
* W/o Southern forces in Congress it enacted nationalistic program to promote econ development- Homestead Act of 1862 gave public land to settlers for small fee, Morrill Land Grant Act gave land to state govts to sell for $ for public education. High tariffs passed- boom to domestic industries, protect from foreign producers * To build transcontinental RR created the Union Pacific RR Company to build westward from Omaha + Central Pacific to build east from CA * National Bank Acts of 1863-1864 created new bank system- banks could join if they invested in govt, in turn could issue US Treasure notes as currency * Govt financed war thru taxes, paper currency, and borrowing. 1861 first ever income tax levied, govt “greenbacks” (paper money) issued (not on gold or silver standard), but mostly thru bonds sold to individuals and larger financial bodies

Raising Union Armies
* To increase army Congress authorized enlisting 500,000 volunteers- produced adequate forces only briefly. By March 1863 govt had to pass national draft law (but ppl could avoid service by hiring someone in his place or paying $) * Ppl were accustomed to remote, inactive nat’l govt so conscription had widespread opposition- mainly from laborers, immigrants, “Peace Democrats”

Wartime Politics
* Lincoln moved to assert his authority- apptd cabinet representing every faction of Repub party, used war powers of president and disregarded parts of Const- e.x. never asking Congress for declaration of war (believed declaration would recognize Confederacy as an independent nation) * Lincoln’s greatest problem was popular opposition to war mobilized by parts of Democratic Party (“Copperheads”) who feared agriculture and Northwest losign influence + deterioration of states rights by strong nat’l govt * Lincoln suppressed opposition by ordering military arrests of civilian dissenters, suspending habeas corpus, stating all ppl who discouraged enlistment or disloyal practices subject to martial law....
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