Chapter 14 & 16 Study Guide

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ENSC 202
Chapter 14 & 16
Study Guide

Chapter 14
* Definition of ore: rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral to make it profitable for mining and processing. * Composition of steel
* Mixture of iron and other elements
* Manganese
* Cobaltwidely used in steel alloys
* chromium
* Reading Assignment: The Real Cost of Gold

Chapter 16
* % energy that could be saved by improving energy efficiency - 43% * Commercial energy waste in US
1) Improved energy efficiency since 1980
* Japan
* Germany2 – 3 times more energy efficient than U.S. * France
2) 84% of all commercial energy used in U.S. is wasted (costs an average of $570,000 per minute) * 41% unavoidable due to the degradation of energy quality imposed by the second law of thermodynamics * 43% wasted unnecessarily

* Transportation and oil consumption
3) 3 out of 4 American commute to work with only 5% relying on energy efficient mass transit 4) 2/3 of oil consumed is for transportation
* 60% of country’s oil is imported
* Four widely used devices that waste energy
5) Incandescent light bulb;
6) A motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine; 7) A nuclear power plant; and,
8) A coal-fired power plant.
* Energy waste of an internal combustion engine – 80% of the energy in its fuel * Cogeneration aka combined heat and power – two useful forms of energy (steam and electricity) are produced from the same fuel source 9) Saves energy and money

10) Energy efficiency as high as 80-85%
* CAFÉ standards – Corporate Average Fuel Standards
11) Government mandated standards for average fuel efficiency for new vehicles sole in U.S. * Average fuel efficiency rose sharply between 1973 and 1985 * Since 1985, average fuel efficiency for new cars sold in U.S. has...
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