Chapter 11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration

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Chapter 11: 1-19
1. The management strategy changed from setting an annual total allowable catch (TAC) and allowing the fishing fleet to fish until the TAC was reached. In 1990 the fishing season was only 6 days, most of the fish caught had to be frozen, gear was lost or damaged, and crews were endangered when the weather was bad. Now the individual quota system is used, so owners of fishing vessels can decide when to fish within a season that last(s) as long as 8 months. The fishers got an increase in income and could fish in better weather, and losing less fishing gear. 2. A natural area will receive protection only if the value a society assigns to services provided in its natural state is higher than the value the society assigns to converting it to a more direct human use. 3. Ecosystem capital includes the goods and services produced by the species within an ecosystem and the interactions between the biotic and abiotic portions of ecosystems. Ecosystems are expected to produce something of economic value. Natural resources are only those items in an ecosystem that have a monetary value and things with a monetary value are not a resource. Ecosystem capital does not require that a monetary value is known or exists. All that matters with ecosystem capital is that there is ecological value. 4. Conservation of natural biotas and ecosystems does not—or at least should not—imply no use by humans whatsoever, although this may sometimes be temporarily expedient in a management program to allow a certain species to recover its numbers. Rather, the aim of conservation is to manage or regulate use so that it does not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself. The objective of preservation of species and ecosystems is to ensure their continuity, regardless of their potential utility. Therefore, a second-growth forest can be conserved but an old-growth forest must be preserved. 5. Productive is the exploitation of ecosystem resources for economic...
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