Chapter 11 (pgs. 186-199): Politics of the Market Revolution
Politics in the Age of Jackson
* A New Kind of Politics
* (1) The Panic of 1819
* Economic booms and busts caused Americans to feel that the government should be more responsive to their needs. * (2) Expansion of the Franchise
* The expansion of the franchise, or vote, allowed greater numbers of American men to participate in politics. * (3) The Election of 1824
* The contentious presidential election of 1824 led the entire nation to become increasingly political. * “Corrupt bargain” – alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to manipulate the voting in the House of Representatives to install Adams as president and Clay as his secretary of state in 1824. * Second two-party system – evolution of political organizations in 1824 into the Jacksonians and the Whigs. * (4) A New Culture of Politics
* Drove the rise of mass parties and the second two-party system.
* Andrew Jackson and the Politics of the “Common Man” * The Election of 1828
* Jackson’s campaign strategy was mudslinging… while he defamed the personal character of his political adversaries, his fellow Democratic leaders organized rallies and barbecues to attract and mobilize voters. * He was most successful with 3 groups:
* (1) Southerners, who appreciated the fact that some of the Indians he had killed were Florida’s Seminoles, who were hated by southerners because the tribe had invited slaves to escape freedom in Seminole lands; * (2) Westerners, who viewed Jackson as a hearty frontiersman (his supporters avoided revealing the fact that his frontier lifestyle depended largely on the 100 slaves he owned); * and (3) the working classes of the North, who had come to resent what they called the “elitism” of the Federalists and their political offspring. * A New Style of Politics
* The election of 1828 signaled the beginning of the kind of political culture that persists in America today. * White Male Democracy
* Jackson was the first president from the West (Tennessee) rather than from the aristocracy of New England or Virginia. He was supported by a coalition of western frontiersmen, southern planters, and the northern working class who supported manhood suffrage (extending the vote to all white men regardless of property ownership) and opposed anyone they considered an aristocrat, even if those aristocrats were interested in extending rights to other, less privileged minorities. * Racism in the North
* The African Americans did not support Jackson because they were excluded from the “common man”.
Jackson as President… 4 issues dominated his presidency:
* (1) Patronage
* Patronage – exchange of a government job in return for political campaign work.
* (2) The Nullification Crisis
* The Context of Nullification
* The economy was changing so rapidly during the Market Revolution that many Americans felt they could hardly keep up. Most focused the blame for their economic problems on the high tariff placed on their goods. * Tariffs
* 1816 – Congress started increasing America’s tariffs to protect American industries, especially the textile industry in New England, which used southern cotton as its material. * 1824 – Congress raised these tariffs; South Carolina and other states objected. Congress approved the tariff despite the complaints. * 1828 – Jackson (running for president against Adams) advocated a ridiculously high tariff, assuming it wouldn’t pass. Jackson’s promotion of the tariff would have gained him the support of the West and the North, while the South would be content that not tariff had been passed. * The Tariff of 1828 (aka the “Tariff of Abominations”) passed in Congress (Jackson was...
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