Chapter 10 Study Guide Apush

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1. 1. Describe the financial situation of the United States in 1791.

∙The revenue had declined and the public debt was huge.
∙The American people were brashly (*hastily, rash) at temping to erect a republic on an immense scale. 2. 2. Characterize the American population at the time of the ratification of the Constitution.

∙The American population was doubling about every twenty-five years and the first census in 1790 recorded about 4 million people. ∙The population was still 90 percent rural though even though the cities were doing very well and growing. About five percent of the population lived east of the Appalachian Mountains 3. 3. When was Vermont admitted to the Union?

∙ Vermont become the 14th state in 1791.

4. 4. Who did the Electoral College elect first president of the United States in 1789?

∙George Washington was unanimously drafted the first president by the Electoral College in 1789.
5. 5. Philadelphia was the first capital of the new nation. What was the second?

∙New York was the temporary capital.
6. 6. Name the members of Washington’s cabinet and the positions they held.

∙The secretary of state was Thomas Jefferson.
∙Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton.
∙The Secretary of War was Henry Knox.
Attorney General Edmund Randolf
7. 7. Who wrote the bill of Rights? When were they adopted by the states?

∙The Bill of rights was adopted in 1791 and was drafted by James Madison.
8. 8. Read the Bill of Rights.

9. 9. How was the judicial branch organized under the Judiciary Act of 1789?

∙The branch had a chief justice and five associates. It also had federal district and circuit courts and established the office of attorney general.
10. 10 Who was the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court?

∙John Jay was the first supreme court Justice.

11. 11. Explain Hamilton’s financial plan

∙His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration in a way to favor the wealthier groups. ∙By doing the above, the wealthy would lend the government monetary and political support. ∙Hamilton also planned to pay back the nations debt at face value, meaning everything they owed plus accumulated interest (a total of more than 54 million dollars)

12. 12. How did Hamilton get his way in Congress?

∙Hamilton persuaded Jefferson to line up enough votes in Congress for assumption. In return Virginia would have the federal district on the Potomac.
13. 13. Why did Hamilton see the national debt as a “national blessing?”

∙He believed it to be a national blessing because it was a kind of union adhesive. The more people the government owed money to, the more people there would be with a personal state in the success of Hamilton’s ideas. ∙He made a debt an asset for vitalizing the financial system as well as the government itself.

14. 14. How did Hamilton plan to raise the money to pay off the national debt?

∙Hamilton’s first plan was custom duties (imposing taxes on imports) which would be derived from a tariff. ∙Revenues from tariff’s required a heavy foreign trade which was another major part of Hamilton’s strategy.

15. 15. What was Hamilton’s vision for a national bank?

∙Hamilton wanted a national bank that was a powerful institution and would hold the federal treasuries money. ∙By having a national bank, federal funds would stimulate business by remaining in circulation ∙The bank would also print paper money and provide a sound and stable national currency. 16. 16. Why did Jefferson argue against the national bank?

∙Jefferson argued that such financial power should be left to the states. He argued that the states, not Congress, had the power to charter banks. “Whatever the constitution does not permit, it forbids”

17. 17. How did Hamilton answer Jefferson’s recommendations to Washington?

∙Hamilton used the example in the constitution which gave congress the power to...
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