Psychology – The Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes. Mental Processes = Physiological and Cognitive Processes.
Psychology comes from two Greek words. “Psyche” = Soul, and “Logos” = the Study of a Subject Psychology became a Scientific Discipline In 1870’s
The Contributions of Wundt and Hall
Philosophy + Physiology = Psychology
Campaigned to make Psychology an independent Scientific Discipline.
Established first Psychology Laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig.
Established First Psychology Journal for research in 1881.
1879 is the Birth of Psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt is the founder of Psychology.
Wundt Considered the Consciousness the primary focus of Psychology.
Many students under Wundt left Germany for America and established Psychology Labs in America.
G. Stanley Hall
Student of Wundt
Important to growth of Psychology in America.
Established First Research Laboratory in America at Johns Hopkins University in 1883.
Established First American Psychology Research Journal in 1887.
Father of American Psychological Association and first President. Founded in 1892.
Structuralism VS Functionalism
Competing Schools of Psychology Thought. Structuralism & Functionalism. Structuralism
Led by Edward Titchener, of Cornell University.
STRUCTURALISM - THE TASK OF PSYCHOLOGY IS TO ANALYZE CONSIOUSNESS INTO ITS BASIC ELEMENTS AND INVESTIGATE HOW THESE ELEMENTS ARE RELATED.
Wanted to examine fundamental components of conscious existence like sensations, feelings, and images.
Introspection – The careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience.
Primary Method used for study by Structuralism.
Led by William James, Formal Training in Medicine. Harvard University.
Functionalism – Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Principles of Psychology (1890) became standard reading for generations of psychologists and most influential text in history of psychology. (William James)
Psychology is deeply embedded in Cultural and Intellectual Influences.
Natural Selection: Using Darwin’s theory of natural Selection. Typical Psychological characteristics must serve a purpose.
Studies the Function of consciousness, rather than the Structure of it.
Wanted to understand the “stream of consciousness” not the “elements” of consciousness.
Functionalists brought interest in mental testing, patterns of development, effective education practices, and behavioral differences between sexes.
James Cattell and John Dewey
Structuralists brought Laboratory research.