Overview: Blood Composition and Functions
1.Describe the composition and physical characteristics of whole blood. Explain why it is classified as a connective tissue. 2.List eight functions of blood.
3.Discuss the composition and functions of plasma.
4.Describe the structure, function, and production of erythrocytes. 5.Describe the chemical makeup of hemoglobin.
6.Give examples of disorders caused by abnormalities of erythrocytes. Explain what goes wrong in each disorder. 7.List the classes, structural characteristics, and functions of leukocytes. 8.Describe how leukocytes are produced.
9.Give examples of leukocyte disorders, and explain what goes wrong in each disorder. 10.Describe the structure and function of platelets.
11.Describe the processes of hemostasis. List factors that limit clot formation and prevent undesirable clotting. 12.Give examples of hemostatic disorders. Indicate the cause of each condition.
Transfusion and Blood Replacement
13.Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups. Explain the basis of transfusion reactions. 14.Describe fluids used to replace blood volume and the circumstances for their use.
Diagnostic Blood Tests
15.Explain the diagnostic importance of blood testing.
Developmental Aspects of Blood
16.Describe changes in the sites of blood production and in the type of hemoglobin produced after birth. 17.Name some blood disorders that become more common with age.
I.Overview: Blood Composition and Functions (pp. 635–636; Fig. 17.1) A.Components (p. 635; Fig. 17.1)
1.Blood is a specialized connective tissue consisting of living cells, called formed elements, suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix, blood plasma. 2.Blood that has been centrifuged separates into three layers: erythrocytes, the buffy coat, and plasma. 3.The blood hematocrit represents the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood. B.Physical Characteristics and Volume (p. 635)
1.Blood is a slightly basic (pH = 7.35–7.45) fluid that has a higher density and viscosity than water, due to the presence of formed elements. 2.Normal blood volume in males is 5–6 liters, and 4–5 liters for females. C.Functions (pp. 635–636)
1.Blood is the medium for delivery of oxygen and nutrients, removal of metabolic wastes to elimination sites, and distribution of hormones. 2.Blood aids in regulating body temperature, body fluid pH, and fluid volume within fluid compartments. 3.Blood protects against excessive blood loss through the clotting mechanism, and from infection through the immune system.
II.Blood Plasma (p. 636; Table 17.1)
A.Blood plasma consists of mostly water (90%), and solutes including nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, products of cell activity, ions, and proteins (p. 636; Table 17.1). B.Plasma proteins account for 8% of plasma solutes, mostly albumin, which function as carriers (p. 636).
III.Formed Elements (pp. 637–649; Figs. 17.2–17.12; Table 17.2) A.Erythrocytes (pp. 637–643; Figs. 17.2–17.8)
1.Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are small cells that are biconcave in shape. They lack nuclei and most organelles, and contain mostly hemoglobin. a.Hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding pigment that is responsible for the transport of most of the oxygen in the blood. b.Hemoglobin is made up of the protein globin bound to the red heme pigment. 2.Production of Erythrocytes
a.Hematopoiesis, or blood cell formation, occurs in the red bone marrow. b.Erythropoiesis, the formation of erythrocytes, begins when a myeloid stem cell is transformed to a proerythroblast, which develops into mature erythrocytes. c.Erythrocyte production is controlled by the hormone erythropoietin. d.Dietary...