Ch 16 Ap Euro Notes

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  • Topic: Scientific method, Science, Isaac Newton
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Chapter 16
SECTION ONE:
-Who were three major Greek scientists that inspired 16th century Europeans? What/ fields were great scientific advancements made that these scientists represented? Aristotle in physics, Ptolemy in astronomy, and Galen in medicine. -Why did European scientists have to make adjustment to ancient theories? Scientists did not want to abandon theories. Rather, they adjusted them. They were forced to do this because they began to notice things that contradicted ancient theories. For example, Aristotle said that all objects in their natural state are at rest - but how could one explain an arrow's motion after it left the bow? Moreover, the humanist rediscovery of other ancient scientists who disagreed with the 3 major scientists also helped reconstruct the beliefs of the 16th century scientists. The discovery of Archimedes's writings on dynamics was influential in physics. -What were two "magical" beliefs that were considered serious sciences back then. Alchemy, the belief that matter can be changed by using secret formulas and mixing various substances, and Astrology, which was the belief that natural phenomena could be predicted by interpreting planetary movement. - Who was Paracelsus?

A 16th century alchemist, who thought that metals and plants could be medicinal when used properly. He though mercury could cure syphilis. -Why did people believe in these "magical" beliefs?
People thought the world could be understood through simple keys to nature. The theories of Neo-Platonism, a Renaissance era school of thought based on Plato's belief that "truth lay in essential but hidden "forms"" contributed to these beliefs. Jewish cabala also contributed to this - this form of thought taught that the universe may be built around magical arrangements of numbers. Pythagoras had also thought that the world may be connected by numerical patterns in nature. - Who were "natural philosophers"? Why did they finally discard the ancient theories that they had been handed down? Natural philosophers were the scientists of the sixteenth and seventeenth century. One reason why they finally got rid of the old ancient theories was because of "magic". They wanted new and simple solutions for problems, and "magic" offered simple solutions. Another reason was that these scientists began to focus more on mathematics, and began to try new theories. -What factors fueled the intellectual revolution?

Magic, Europe's fascination with technology, and the growing interest in experiments amongst anatomists. For magic, magic offered new and simple solutions about nature. Scientists wanted new simple solutions, so they gave up the ancient theories that were flawed. For technology, the architects, navigators, engineers and weapon makers of the Renaissance had to rely on measurement and observation to build buildings, cannons, etc. This changed how problems in physics were seen. For the experiments, a university in Padua conducted dissections. They were able to have direct observations of nature from there - thus, experimentation became popular. -What was the university of Padua known for?

Many great leaders in the scientific revolution were trained there. It was a medical school known for its dissections. -What important 5 new instruments were invented in the 16th and 17th centuries? What effect did they have on the field of science? Telescope, vacuum pump, thermometer, barometer, and microscope. These instruments let scientists approach science in a new way - rather than relying on magic and ancient theories. - Who was Andreas Vesalius?

Andreas Vesalius was a member of the Padua faculty. He wrote "The Structure of the Human Body", a book about anatomy that pointed out errors in Galen's works. He used dissection to create anatomical descriptions of the body that created a new era of observation and experimentation in anatomy. - Who was Nicolaus Copernicus?

Copernicus was a Polish cleric who studied at Padua. He was a highly...
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