The Secession Crisis
* Southern militant leaders, champions of “Southern nationalism” concept and also known as fire eaters, began demanding an end to the Union * The Withdrawal of The South
* South Carolina seceded first. They called a special convention and voted unanimously on Dec. 20, 1860 to be the first state to secede from the Union. * Six other states joined South Carolina as Lincoln entered office. * Mississippi – Jan. 9, 1861
* Florida – Jan. 10
* Alabama – Jan. 11
* Georgia – Jan. 19
* Louisiana – Jan. 26
* Texas – Feb. 1
* Feb. 1861 – representatives of the seven seceded states met at Montgomery, Alabama and formed a new nation, The Confederate States of America. * Northern response was confused and indecisive
* Pres. James Buchanan told Congress in Dec. 1860 that no state had the right to secede from the Union but suggested the Federal Gov. had no authority to stop a state if it did. * Seceded states immediately seized federal property (forts, arsenals, government offices) but had insufficient military power to seize Fort Sumter – located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina – and Fort Pickens – located in the harbor of Pensacola, South Florida. * Pres. Buchanan refused to yield Fort Sumter to the commissioners sent by South Carolina. * Pres. sent reinforcements to Fort Sumter in Jan. 1861. First shots fired between both North and South. * The Failure of Compromise
* Sen. John Crittenden of Kentucky submitted Crittenden Compromise. * It would have guaranteed the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states and satisfy Southern demands on issues such as fugitive slaves and slavery in DC. * Heart of the plan was to reestablish the Missouri Compromise Line. Slavery prohibited north of the line and the opposite for south. * Republicans were not willing to accept the plan. It would abandon their main philosophy – slavery not allowed to expand. * Fort Sumter
* Conditions in Ft. Sumter were deteriorating. Union forces were running out of supplies. Lack of provisions = forced to evacuate. * Lincoln sent supplies, informing South Carolina that he had no intention on sending army unless supply ships are attacked. * If Lincoln surrendered Sumter, he thought he would lose his commitment to maintain Union. * Confederates faced dilemma.
* Attacking would appear as aggression.
* Not attacking would appear as submission to federal government. * Confederate leaders decided to attack, ordered General P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of Conf. forces on Charleston, to attack and take the island in any ways. * Apr. 12-13 – Anderson refused to surrender, Conf. attacked for two days * Apr. 14 – Anderson surrender. Civil War begins
* The Opposing Sides
* North had all the important material advantages.
* Population more than twice as large as South – Union has greater manpower for both army and workforce. * North can manufacture its own war materials by 1862 because of a more advanced industrial system. * South had no industry, they relies on European imports throughout the war * North has a better transportation than the south – more and better railroads, twice as much as the Confederates, and a much better integration. * South railroad system deteriorated and almost collapsed by 1864. * North advantages were not decisive. South was defending its land, they were familiar with their location and had local support * North were fighting mostly in the South, they used the inferior railroad system and amongst the hostile local population. * Majority of white southern population committed to the war firmly. North, however, was divided until the end. * The English and French textile industry’s dependence...
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