Cem Final Exam Guide

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50 questions
30 multiple choice, true false, matching
10 ratings
5 fill in the blank
5 short answer

Know chapter 8 completely
Bring calculator

Chap 8: Programming: creating and distributing content for audiences, what it’s all about it. Don’t go to websites that don’t update, want something fresh. Look at advertising and fee-based models

Advertising-based model: what programming can we acquire for the least cost to attract the biggest audience that we can sell to the most advertisers at the highest commercial rates?

Fee-based (subscription) model: what programming can we acquire for the least cost to attract the most customers that will pay the highest fees?

Niche: What portion (segment) of the audience to you want to attract?

Zero Sum Marketplace: As the number of competing brands for a product increases, the total number of customers in the marketplace remains unchanged (zero) i.e. the pizza doesn’t get any bigger.

The only way to increase market share is to take customers away from competitors

80/20 rule: A minority of causes exert the majority of effects 80 percent of the results of any endeavor come from 20 percent of the causes

20% of restaurant menu items are responsible for 80% of the orders

Segmentation: dividing of an audience into all types of geographic, demographic, and lifestyle categories

“The Long Tail” Instead of focusing only on the most popular items products, sell large quantities of less popular but inexpensively produced and distributed items. Online Books profit from this, Amazon profits from this. It’s a new approach to media business strategy thanks to digital technology’s capacity to reduce costs DVD vs. Streaming video: makes hit movies and shows AND less popular shows/movies available and profitable

Repeatability: TV and Cable: a huge portion of TV and cable program content involves repeats or “reruns” often more profits are made on the repeats. Ex. Friends Radio: greater chance constantly changing audience will hear a song/item they like, so songs repeat over and over

Scheduling: Dayparts: blocks of time in which several programs may be scheduled or one consistent type of program may be offered

What time of day? Available audience (time of day), competition’s programming, lead-in/lead-out (the audience flow)

Hammocking: strong – weak - strong
Tent-polling: weak- strong - weak
Lead-in Effects: programs tend to “inherit” audiences from the prior program Block Scheduling: clustering programs of the same type of content Counter Programming: offering radically different programming to what the competition is running

Stripped: program airs at the same time every day, ex. The Price is Right at 11 AM M-F

Checkerboarded: Program airs at the same time once a week aka Hawaii 5-0 airs 10 PM Mondays on CBS

New technologies have made scheduling less important today: Time-shifting devices, on demand, smaller portable devices

Sources of programming: local, network, syndicated

Local: content produced by the station itself, local newscasts. Responsible for all production and talent costs, complete control over commercial inventory, big market vs. small market problems with fixed production costs, provides content that networks and syndicators can’t provide

Online website opportunities for additional local content and selling advertisements/sponsorships

Some group owners provide program content for their stations with local adjacencies, the “group” becomes a network of stations for a program produced internally

Networks purchase program content from production studious, programming provided free to local station affiliates, network compensation is going away

Network provides stations with a limited number of local adjacencies for stations

Most radio stations are affiliated with some type of network, most stations do not have market exclusivity (unlike TV) The internet has also extended to the reach of networks directly to...
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