TARGET SENTENCE 1I’m meeting Dave for lunch on Sunday – Elementary Level / Grammar
ANALYSIS | D ANTICPATED PROBLEMS |
A MEANING You have plans to eat with Dave on Sunday So it is…. A planned future event This is an event that will happen in the future. | SS think because is present tense of [to be], that this event is now / in the present. SS may not think it is a definite arrangement, more of a plan. Confusion with “meat”? Unlikely in this case | B PRONUNCIATION I’m - /aɪm/ I’m is unstressed, weak meeting - /ˈmiːtɪŋ/ stress on first syllable When put together, it is spoken quickly so the two m’s appear to join as in “mmm”. 3 syllables in total. Hence, /aɪˈmiːtɪŋ/ -I’m meeting | SS may overstress “I’m” - /’aɪmiːtɪŋ/ SS may overstress –ting - /aɪmiː’tɪŋ/ SS may struggle with the contraction from I am to I’m or use “I am” so that the sentence is more formal I am meeting Dave for lunch….. | C FORM To meet – (transitive verb – regular) (transitive verb has subject and object).. Meeting – ing form of verb (present continuous/future form) Subject + [to be] + [verb] + Object Am/is/are -ing form somebody Therefore…… I + am + meeting + Dave But I + am is contracted to I’m. All persons of the conjugation of [to be] can be contracted. So I’m meeting…..You’re meeting….. He’s meeting……. We’re meeting…… You’re meeting…… They’re meeting…… | SS may want to add “with”. Not needed or required in this instance. SS may confuse with “I am going to meet”?? Maybe? This is an intention rather than a definite plan. As it is present form (I am), SS may confuse with present simple…. I meet Dave for lunch… SS may put in “I am” but miss the –ing form… I am meet Dave for lunch…. Or forget [to be] only I meeting Dave for lunch….. |
E PROVIDING A CONTEXT/CONVEYING MEANING
Story – I have not seen my friend Dave for a month. So we talk on the telephone and we agree to meet for lunch on Sunday. The next day my wife asks if we can go shopping on Sunday but I can’t because I have a definite plan with Dave.
F CHECKING THE UNDERSTANDING
Have you met Dave for lunch yet? No (so it is future)
Do you meet him for lunch every Sunday? No (it is not regular so it is not present simple – I meet Dave for lunch on Sundays) Is this a definite arrangement? Yes (so present continuous)
M Parrott – Grammar for English Language Teachers (2nd Edition) (CUP) Internet – online dictionaries, grammar sites, etc
TARGET SENTENCE 2He shouldn’t have insulted the policeman – Upper-Intermediate Level / Grammar
ANALYSIS | D ANTICPATED PROBLEMS |
A MEANING This is an opinion or advice about something that has happened (past) It means that “I think that he was wrong to do this” To insult – to be rude to someone or offend them or be mean to them. So, the sentence means “I think he was wrong to be rude (or mean) to the policeman”. | SS may think have is the main verb. SS may not think it is advice or opinion but maybe a statement of fact (he could have been right to do so!!). | B PRONUNCIATION Shouldn’t – stress on first syllable, weak unstressed end of word. Have – use of schwa, unstressed /ʃ’ʊdənt əv/ Insulted – 3 syllables, stress second. –ed pronounced –id as in “did”. /ɪnˈsʌltɪd/ Hence, /ʃ’ʊdənt əv ɪnˈsʌltɪd/ - shouldn’t have insulted | SS may overstress second syllable of “shouldn’t - /ʃʊ’dənt/ SS may overstress “have” - / ʃ’ʊdənt hæv/ SS may stress first syllable of “insulted” - /’ɪnsʌltɪd/ SS may struggle with the contraction from “should not” to “shouldn’t” so that the sentence is more formal So Should not have insulted – /ʃ’ʊd nɒt əv ɪnˈsʌltɪd/ | C FORM Should have – modal auxiliary verb. Unchanged when used with a verb infinitive. To insult – (transitive verb – regular) (transitive verb has subject and object). Insulted – past participle So, form...
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