Cell Biology Study Guide

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Cell Biology (PCB 3023)
Fall 2012
Review for Exam 1

Chapter 1

List the key commonalties and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic – no organelles; no nucleus; bacteria and Achaea; spherical, rodlike/corkscrew-shaped; cell wall; Eukaryotic – has nucleus; has organelles

Commonalities – contain DNA that stores genetic information

What is the main component of cellular membranes? What function(s) do membranes serve in cells? Made of phospholipids; defines volume of cell; isolates the cell from environment; Motility/Morphology; Signal recognition and transduction; transport of small molecules and some ions

Summarize the key structures and functions of the following organelles: nucleus-double membrane (nuclear envelope); outer membrane continuous with the ER; DNA synthesis and repair; transcription; ribosome synthesis endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)-largest amount of membrane; RER-studded with ribosomes; synthesis of membrane bound and exported proteins; SER-synthesis of lipids and steroid hormones; calcium signaling; detoxification reactions

Golgi apparatus-series of membrane stacks; processing and sorting of proteins to cellular compartments including export Lysosomes-single membrane; interior is pH 5; cellular digestion: autophagy Peroxisomes-small and spherical; long chain fatty acid oxidation; lipid oxidation; O2 and H2O2 based reactions Mitochondria-ETC; generation of ATP; oxidation of pyruvate, fatty acids, amino acids; apoptosis; contain own DNA and reproduce dividing in two Chloroplasts – capture energy from sunlight; found in plants and algae;

Know size ranges for the cell and its components. Be able to convert between units of measure. 1m=103 mm=106µm =109 nm

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton? Name the different types of cytoskeletal fibers. Cell motility, cell shape, cellular organization; microtubules, actin, intermediate filaments

What is meant by the term ‘model organism’? List the common model organisms (described in book but not in class). Model organism – an organism selected for intensive study as a representative of a large group of species. Examples are the mouse (representing mammals), the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (representing a unicellular eukaryote), and E coli (representing bacteria), the fruit fly Drosophilia melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana (representing plants)

Chapter 2

Which 4 elements make up the majority of atomic composition found in living things? Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen

Describe the 3 main subatomic particles (define their role in atomic structure). Protons – positively charged, determines atomic number; Electrons – negatively charged; Neutrons – neutral, uncharged, same mass as protons, structural stability of the nucleus

Explain covalent and ionic bonding. Give an example of each. Covalent bond – molecules formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons; e.g. H2; Ionic bond – transfer of electrons, electrons are donated by one atom to another, electrostatic attraction (an attractive force that occurs between oppositely charge atoms; e.g. NaCl

Explain the concept of polarity – use water as an example. The positive charge is concentrated toward one end of the molecule (the positive pole) and the negative charge is concentrated toward the other end (the negative pole)

Explain the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Be able to classify molecules as one, the other, or both (fatty acids/lipids), based on their structures. Hydrophilic – water loving, dissolve in water, contain positive or negative charges (ions): sugars, DNA, RNA, and majority of proteins, carboxyl head group Hydrophobic – water fearing; uncharged and form few or no hydrogen bonds, do not dissolve in water: hydrocarbons

How many covalent bonds do the atoms carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen usually form? Carbon – 4; hydrogen – 1; oxygen – 2; nitrogen - 3

Be able to identify the following...
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