Case Study

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Patient X’s doctor has been trying to convince him to practice better lifestyle habits to for several years to help combat his hypertension (on antihypertensive medication for 3 years), diabetes (6 years) and growing waistline. A recent routine check-up revealed a deterioration of his lipid profile (TC 260, TG 310, HDL 29, LDL 170) and fasting glucose of 172. Patient X is 55 years old, weighs 245 lbs and he is 5’10 .

1) Hypertension: Weight control to lower the risks associated with hypertension include a diet low in sodium and high in potassium. The risk of hypertension is lower when salt intake is lower and potassium helps reduce blood pressure by increasing the amount of sodium excreted in the urine. The DASH eating plan is the best option for maintaining hypertension. Physical activity is also a major lifestyle modification that should be adopted. Engaging in regular aerobic physical activity such as a brisk walk will lower the risk of hypertension.

Diabetes: A diet to help control diabetes also focuses on weight management. Low glycemic index diets have been shown to reduce complications associated with diabetes. Exercise is also a key factor to controlling diabetes. A 3-5 days of the week exercise, which focuses on caloric expenditure and duration rather than intensity, has been proven to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. *Exercise can reduce other risk factors such as weight control, lipid profile, and hypertension.

Lipid Profile: Elevated triglycerides are best treated with increased physical activity and weight reduction. Aerobic exercise, weight reduction, smoking cessation, and moderate alcohol consumption will favorably affect HDL-C and lower LDL-C.

After comparing these three aspects, it is easy to see that a diet focused on weight management, smoking cessation, and physical activity involving aerobic exercise will greatly lower Patient X’s risk factors for hypertension and diabetes.

2) Suggesting that...
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