Cardiovascular System Notes

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The Cardiovascular System

CHAPTER SUMMARY
The importance of the cardiovascular system cannot be overstated. This is one system that students frequently know something about, at least from a plumbing viewpoint, but they often don’t completely understand the complexity of the system and the magnitude of its tasks. An essential component of presentation of the material is then to outline in detail the role of the cardiovascular system and its significance to all other body systems. This chapter begins with the fundamental information about the heart by first discussing anatomy and then moving on to the more complex physiology. The section on anatomy covers the layers of the heart as well as its chambers, valves, and the vessels through which blood moves in and out of its various regions. A section on cardiac circulation explains the way the heart itself is supplied with oxygen-rich blood. The structural and mechanical characteristics of the heart are followed by a discussion of its unique electrical intrinsic activity. The conduction system is outlined and relevant homeostatic imbalances are discussed. Concepts related to the electrical conduction system of the heart are always difficult to grasp, and key demonstrations and activities help solidify the students’ understanding. Following the section on the heart itself is the portion of the chapter dealing with the blood vessels. Arteries, veins, and capillaries are compared for their structural and physiological similarities as well as their differences. Names of the major vessels are given, as the route of blood is traced from its point of exit from the heart through the aorta to all parts of the body and back to the heart via the superior and inferior venae cavae. A look into the various mechanisms involved in blood pressure precedes a discussion of the special circulatory routes that supply the brain, liver, and developing fetus. Finally, the developmental aspects of circulation are considered. SUGGESTED LECTURE OUTLINE

I.THE HEART (pp. 362–374)
A.Anatomy of the Heart (pp. 362–368)
1.Location and Size
2.Coverings and Wall
3.Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
a.Atria
b.Ventricles
c.Superior and Inferior Venae Cavae
d.Pulmonary Arteries
e.Pulmonary Veins
f.Aorta
4.Valves
a.Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
b.Semilunar Valves
5.Cardiac Circulation
6.Homeostatic Imbalances
a.Endocarditis
b.Angina Pectoris
c.Myocardial Infarction
B.Physiology of the Heart (pp. 368–374)
1.Intrinsic Conduction System of the Heart: Setting the Basic Rhythm
a.Intrinsic Conduction System
b.Homeostatic Imbalances
i.Heart Block
ii.Ischemia
iii.Fibrillation
2.Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds
a.Mid-to-Late Diastole
b.Ventricular Systole
c.Early Diastole
d.Homeostatic Imbalances
i.Murmurs
3.Cardiac Output (CO)
a.Regulation of Stroke Volume (SV)
b.Factors Modifying Basic Heart Rate (HR)
c.Neural (ANS) Controls
d.Physical Factors
e.Homeostatic Imbalanaces
i.Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
ii.Pulmonary Edema
II.BLOOD VESSELS (pp. 374–395)
A.Microscopic Anatomy of Blood Vessels (pp. 374–377)
1.Tunics
2.Structural Differences between Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
3.Homeostatic Imbalanaces
a.Varicose Veins
b.Thrombophlebitis
c.Pulmonary Embolism
B.Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels (pp. 378–386)
1.Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation (Figure 11.12)
a.Arterial Branches of the Ascending Aorta
i.Right and Left Coronary Arteries
b.Arterial Branches of the Aortic Arch
i.Brachiocephalic Trunk
ii.Left Common Carotid Artery
iii.Left Subclavian Artery
c.Arterial Branches of the Thoracic Aorta
i.Intercostal Arteries
ii.Bronchial Arteries
iii.Esophageal Arteries
iv.Phrenic Arteries
d.Arterial Branches of the Abdominal Aorta
i.Celiac Trunk
ii.Superior Mesenteric Artery
iii.Renal Arteries
iv.Gonadal Arteries
v.Lumbar...
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