Qualitative: non-numerical data that provides an explanation for something. Used when researching social issues, opinions and perceptions etc. Uses: interview, questionnaire, observation, case study
Advantage: can be used to compare opinions or ideas
Disadvantages: time consuming, may be subject to bias
Quantitative: collecting facts in numerical form to draw relationships between facts through statistical analysis and experimentation. Uses: structured interview, questionnaire, experiments
Advantages: objective and reliable, less subject to bias
Disadvantages: obtain simple or short answers- do not retrieve all information.
Formulating a research proposal:
* Decide on area & relate to CAFS
* Consider what is known and why it is chosen
* Develop question/hypothesis (consider time, energy, methodologies and literature available) Research methodology:
* Survey using interview:
Advantages: both qual & quant data, can be structured or unstructured Disadvantages: time consuming, may not get information wanted. * Surveys using questionnaire:
Advantages: lower costs, large amount of data gathered
Disadvantages: high non-response rate, collate information
* Case study:
Advantages: detailed, first-hand information, variety of sources Disadvantages: subjective, may be subject to bias, time consuming * Literature review:
Advantages: gains background information, cost effective
Disadvantages: time consuming, may be outdated or confusing
* Observation- participant:
Advantages: gain more knowledge, greater disclosure
Disadvantages: subjective, may be subject to bias
* Observation- non-participant:
Advantages: more objective, see relationships etc. better
Disadvantages: time consuming, member’s actions influenced by being observed. Planning: Formulate timeline, do background research, select methodologies. Collecting & recording data: Collecting involves using research methodologies to gather data from a range of sources. Recording involves documenting data relevant to topic.
Analysing and interpreting data:
* Clarifying data- highlight important points, trends, outcomes and relationships etc. * Record information in results section
* Record qual data in text form under headings
* Involves explaining main ideas of data and how they apply * Validity and reliability of data
* Inconsistencies, implications and limitations occurred.
Graphs, tables, presenting key data:
Tables: list numerical data to show relationships or making comparisons between factors. Contains title, row and column headings, population, source and explanations at bottom. Graphs: used to visually represent pattern, comparison or trend in research, and when precise numbers are not needed. Presenting key data: can range from text to graphs and tables- researcher should consider the purpose of presenting the information, and what they want the reader to understand from it. Report writing and presentation:
Findings must be presented in an organised and logical format. Title, author and date
Project Diary: Record activities, positive and negative experiences, recommendations Bibliography: list of all secondary sources consulted or referred to. Appendix: used to present additional material/information related to report but not appropriate in the body. Should include background information, supporting facts, surveys, tables or graphs and definition of terms. Must be alphabetised or numbered.
SOURCES OF DATA (PEOPL)
Source| Primary/Secondary| Limitations| Advantages|
People/Individuals| Primary –
surveys, case studies or observations| * Time consuming * Bias | * Range of views * Information about specific context| Electronics| Secondary –...