Cafs- Year 12 Syllabus Summary

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Qualitative: non-numerical data that provides an explanation for something. Used when researching social issues, opinions and perceptions etc. Uses: interview, questionnaire, observation, case study

Advantage: can be used to compare opinions or ideas
Disadvantages: time consuming, may be subject to bias
Quantitative: collecting facts in numerical form to draw relationships between facts through statistical analysis and experimentation. Uses: structured interview, questionnaire, experiments
Advantages: objective and reliable, less subject to bias
Disadvantages: obtain simple or short answers- do not retrieve all information.

Formulating a research proposal:
* Decide on area & relate to CAFS
* Consider what is known and why it is chosen
* Develop question/hypothesis (consider time, energy, methodologies and literature available) Research methodology:
* Survey using interview:
Advantages: both qual & quant data, can be structured or unstructured Disadvantages: time consuming, may not get information wanted. * Surveys using questionnaire:
Advantages: lower costs, large amount of data gathered
Disadvantages: high non-response rate, collate information
* Case study:
Advantages: detailed, first-hand information, variety of sources Disadvantages: subjective, may be subject to bias, time consuming * Literature review:
Advantages: gains background information, cost effective
Disadvantages: time consuming, may be outdated or confusing
* Observation- participant:
Advantages: gain more knowledge, greater disclosure
Disadvantages: subjective, may be subject to bias
* Observation- non-participant:
Advantages: more objective, see relationships etc. better
Disadvantages: time consuming, member’s actions influenced by being observed. Planning: Formulate timeline, do background research, select methodologies. Collecting & recording data: Collecting involves using research methodologies to gather data from a range of sources. Recording involves documenting data relevant to topic.

Analysing and interpreting data:
* Clarifying data- highlight important points, trends, outcomes and relationships etc. * Record information in results section
* Record qual data in text form under headings
* Involves explaining main ideas of data and how they apply * Validity and reliability of data
* Inconsistencies, implications and limitations occurred.

Graphs, tables, presenting key data:
Tables: list numerical data to show relationships or making comparisons between factors. Contains title, row and column headings, population, source and explanations at bottom. Graphs: used to visually represent pattern, comparison or trend in research, and when precise numbers are not needed. Presenting key data: can range from text to graphs and tables- researcher should consider the purpose of presenting the information, and what they want the reader to understand from it. Report writing and presentation:

Findings must be presented in an organised and logical format. Title, author and date
Project Diary: Record activities, positive and negative experiences, recommendations Bibliography: list of all secondary sources consulted or referred to. Appendix: used to present additional material/information related to report but not appropriate in the body. Should include background information, supporting facts, surveys, tables or graphs and definition of terms. Must be alphabetised or numbered.

Source| Primary/Secondary| Limitations| Advantages|
People/Individuals| Primary –
surveys, case studies or observations| * Time consuming * Bias | * Range of views * Information about specific context| Electronics| Secondary –...
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