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FAMILY AND COMMUNITY
New topic (term3)

Growth and development throughout are influenced by factors by factors such as
- Nourishment (food and water)
- Air
- The environment
- Activity Level
- Sleep
- Stimulation
- Disease
- Culture
- Religion
- Education
- Socio-economic status
- Social expectation

There is no specific age for each stage or development individual move at their own pace with many stages overlapping, for example there is no precise date or year that a young adult enters middle adulthood this will be a gradual change experienced as the individual ages

Stages of the Lifespan

PREGNANCY
Fertilization or conception is the beginning of pregnancy, the expectant mother supplied food and oxygen to the fetus through the placenta as the fetus develops in the uterus for the following nine months

It is important that both parents lead a healthy lifestyle before conception and pregnancy care before conception is important as the first three months is the critical time for growth and development of the fetus. To meet the needs of the fetus it is essential that the mother be in good health and a non-smoker. The mothers diet should be made up of a healthy diet and obtain alcohol and not to take drugs and the mother should be vaccinated (especially against rubella). The father’s role is equally important before and during pregnancy he should consume a nutritionally balanced diet before and reduce alcohol consumption, when planning pregnancy as the sperm may be affected by too much alcohol or poor diet.

The Sperm contains his genetic material and this is combined with the mothers. If he is carried of a genetic disorder or a disease such a spineabifida then this may be passed to the child. The father can also offer a supportive role. A medical check is beneficial to identify any problems during pregnancy that could be a problem during pregnancy.

STAGES OF THE LIFESPAN

INFANCY

Infancy lasts from birth to 2 years of age.
The primary needs of infants are:
FOOD
- Babies = breast/bottle milk
- 4-6 months

Physical comfort

- Clothing is appropriate for climate
- Change dirty or wet clothing
-Adequate sleep is essential for general wellbeing
-Safe environment:
- Free of dangers and hazards e.g. Medications

Infants also need love and affection. This helps them to feel secure and develop a positive self-concept. Security and support from family members helps foster confidence and, ultimately, independence.

A range of activities needs to be included in the daily routine of young children to ensure that they develop fine (writing) and gross (running) motor skills.

CHILDHOOD

Childhood spans from 2 to 12 years of age. A range of physical activities is essential in the daily routine to ensure that children continue to develop motor skills.
Interaction and space to play with other children and adults is necessary in order to develop social skills.
Play = social, emotional, cognitive and physical development. E.g. Social skills = sharing.
Children should be given positive reinforcement from family and peers.
As children grow they continue to need adequate sleep (usually 10-12 hours each day).
It is important to maintain children health and this can be done through immunization...
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