Appadurai’s model: Five dimensions of global cultural flows Scapes help us to define our imagined worlds
1.Ethnoscapes- produced by flows of people: tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, and guest workers 2.Technoscapes- the machinery and plant flows produces by multinational and national corporations and government agencies ex. cars, food 3.Finanscapes- produced by the rapid flows of money in the currency markets and stock exchanges 4.Mediascapes- the repertoires of images and information, the flows which are produces and distributed by newspapers, magazines, television, and film 5.Ideoscapes- linked to flows of images that are associated with state or counter state movement ideologies, which are comprised of elements of the Western Enlightenment worldview- images of democracy, freedom, welfare rights
High and low context cultures: EDWARD HALL
High and low context communication refers to the fact that when people communicate, they take for granted how much the listener knows about the subject under discussion. In low-context communication, the listener knows very little and must be told practically everything. In high-context communication, the listener is already “contexted” and does not need to be given much background information.
-Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Greek, and Arab cultures = high-end -German, Scandinavian, American, and Swiss = low-context
There are mental programs developed in childhood and that are reinforced by our culture. Example: Libya. One mental program reinforced is honor, and that video was insulting and disrespectful.
3.Femininity and masculinity
Collectivist: identity based on social network, children think in terms of “we,” harmony should be maintained and direct communication avoided, at work, relationship prevails over task, ideologies of equality prevail over ideologies of individual freedom, harmony and consensus in society are the ultimate goals.
Individualistic: identity based on the individual, children think in terms of “I,” speaking one’s mind is important, task prevails over relationship, ideologies of individual freedom prevail over ideologies of equality, self-actualization of every individual is the ultimate goal
Power distance: the degree to which a culture tolerates inequality in power distribution in relationships and organizations. Hierarchical power structures or more equal distributions of power. People are assumed to be unequal, and differences in age, sex, generation, and status are maximized. Ex. high-power = France, Mexico, India
low-power= Australia, Israel, New Zealand
Uncertainty avoidance: measures the degree to which a culture can tolerate uncertainty and ambiguous situations. Members of high-uncertainty avoidance countries try to reduce the level of ambiguity and uncertainty. They resist change, fear failure, avoid risk taking, pursue life and job security, and desire behavioral rules that can be followed in interactions with others. Examples include Greece, Spain, France, Japan. Low-uncertainty avoidance cultures are more comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty. Their members are able to cope with the stress and anxiety that uncertainty causes. As a result, they are better able to tolerate deviant behaviors. They take more initiative, exhibit greater flexibility, and feel more relaxed in social situations. Examples include Great Britain, Ireland, U.S.
Masculinity/femininity: the degree to which stereotypically masculine and feminine traits prevail in a culture. Does the culture place the highest value on assertiveness, wealth, and achievement, or on relationships, caring for others, and the overall quality of life? In a masculine culture, men are dominant. They should be ambitious, assertive, strong, competitive, and...