Business Studies Supplementary Reader

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CLASS XII

Supplementary
Reading Material
in Business Studies
EFFECTIVE FOR BOARD
EXAMINATION – 2013

CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092

UNIT: PLANNING
PLAN
A plan is a specific action proposed to help the organization achieve its objectives. It is a document that outlines how goals are going to be met. The importance of developing Plans is evident from the fact that there may be more than one means of reaching a particular goal. So with the help of logical plans, objectives of an organization could be achieved easily.

SINGLE USE PLANS
Single use plans apply to activities that do not recur or repeat. Single use plan is one time plan specifically designed to achieve particular goal that, once achieved will not recur in the future. Such Plan is developed to meet the needs of a unique situation. The length of a singleuse plan differs greatly depending on the project in question, as a single event plan may only last one day while a single project may last weeks or months.

STANDING PLANS – KNOWN AS REPEAT USE PLANS
Standing plans are used over and over again because they focus on organizational situations that occur repeatedly. They are usually made once and retain their value over a period of years while undergoing revisions and updates. That is why they are also called repeated use plans.

OBJECTIVES, STRATEGY, POLICY, PROCEDURE, METHOD, RULE,
BUDGET AND PROGRAMME (Please look up NCERT book for them)

1

UNIT: STAFFING
INDUCTION TRAINING
Induction training is a type of training given to help a new employee in settling down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with the people, the surroundings, the job and the business. The duration of such type of training may be from a few hours to a few days.

UNIT: DIRECTING
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership styles refer to a leader‟s behaviour. Behavioural pattern which the leader reflects in his role as a leader is often described as the style of leadership. A Leadership style is the result of the leader‟s philosophy, personality, and experience and value system. It also depends upon the type of followers and the atmosphere prevailing in the organization.

Different types of leadership style are:
1.

Autocratic leadership

2.

Participative leadership – Democratic

3.

Free rein leadership – Laissez Faire

A leader may use all styles over a period of time but one style tends to predominate as his normal way of using power.
Example Mr. Ulhas, CEO of I Create India, distributes the work for the month. He delegates the work to his staff Ms. Ranju, Ms. Anjana, Ms. Geeta and Mr. Dinesh as per his discretion.
(Mr. Ulhas is behaving as an autocratic leader)

2

Mr. Ulhas has realized that due to absence of Ms. Geeta, the work will not get over as scheduled. He discusses with his staff members to meet the dead line. Everybody decided to do over time and planned to stay back accordingly. (Mr. Ulhas is behaving as a democratic leader)

The staff plans to organize a party in honor of Ms. Geeta as she got promoted. Mr. Ulhas asks the other members of staff to fix the venue and the menu for the occasion. (Mr. Ulhas is behaving as a free rein leader)

POWER STYLE
Autocratic

Leader

Participative

Leader

Free-rein

Leader

Employees
Employees

Employees

Leader

Whole Group
EMPHASIS
3

Employees

AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN LEADER
An autocratic leader gives orders and insists that they are obeyed. He determines the policies for the group without consulting them.
He does not give information about future plans but simply tells the group what immediate steps they must take.
Under this style, all decision making power is centralized in the leader as shown in the diagram. He does not give the subordinates any freedom to influence his decision. It is like “bossing people around.” This style should normally be used on rare occasions. A

B

C

D

A is the leader – Boss – Centered –...
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