CHAPTER 4: Communicating through Nonverbal Behaviors
Chapter Overview - This chapter begins with the learning outcome summaries and terms covered in the chapter, followed by a set of lesson plans for you to use to deliver the content in Chapter 4. • Learning Outcomes
• Key Terms
• Lesson Plan for Lecture
• Lesson Plan for Group Work
• Video Materials
• Student Assignments
• Supplementary Student Assignments
• Test Bank Materials
1 Identify characteristics of nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication refers to the interpretations that are made of bodily actions, vocal qualities, use of space, and self-presentation cues.
2 Identify channels through which we communicate nonverbally Nonverbal communication is continuous, multichanneled, intentional or unintentional, possibly ambiguous, and the primary means by which we convey our emotions. The sources of nonverbal messages include use of body motions (kinesics: gestures, eye contact, facial expression, posture, and touch); use of voice (vocalics: pitch, volume, rate, quality and intonation, vocalized pauses); and use of space (proxemics: personal space, physical space, use of artifacts).
3 Discuss how our self-presentation affects communication
People gather information about us based on how they interpret our self-presentation cues. Self-presentation cues include physical appearance (for instance, body shape), clothing and grooming, and use of time (or our temporal orientation).
4 Examine how nonverbal communication varies based on culture and gender The nonverbal behaviors that we enact and how we interpret the nonverbal messages of others depends on our culture and gender. Regardless of our cultural background or gender, however, we can become more adept at interpreting others’ nonverbal messages we receive by not jumping to conclusions, by considering cultural and gender differences, by paying attention to all aspects of nonverbal communication and their relationship to verbal communication, and by perception checking.
5 Understand guidelines for improving nonverbal communication We can improve our encoding of nonverbal communication by being conscious of the nonverbal behavior we are displaying, by being purposeful or strategic in its use, by making sure that our nonverbal cues do not distract from our message, by making our nonverbal communication match our verbal messages, and by adapting our nonverbal behavior to the situation.
|nonverbal communication behaviors |body orientation |proxemics | |kinesics |haptics |personal space | |gestures |vocalics |physical space | |illustrators |paralanguage |artifacts | |emblems |pitch |endomorph | |adaptors |volume |mesomorph | |eye contact or gaze |rate |ectomorph | |facial expression |quality |chronemics | |emoticons |intonation |monochronic time orientation | |posture |vocalized pauses |polychronic time orientation |
Lesson Plan for Lecture
The goal for this chapter is that students understand nonverbal communication,...
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