Buddhism and Hinduism Perspective on Food

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GOING ORGANIC: SIREH (Piper betle) AS AN ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT AGAINST FISH BACTERIAL DISEASES Nik-Haiha, N.Y. , Hussin, M.A . and Siti-Zaharah, A. Marine Finfish Production and Research Center Tg. Demong, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, MALAYSIA

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION



Bacterial disease the major diseases responsible for significant losses Among the reported bacterial diseases cases in Malaysia:  Vibriosis (1987 – 2000)  Marine finfish (seabass & grouper) in cages in Penang, Perak and Kedah  Streptococcosis (1997 – 2002)  Tilapia in cages in Pahang River, Temerloh & Lake Kenyir, Terengganu  Pasteurellosis (2005 – 2006)  Sea bass in cages in Kedah (Dr Siti Zahrah Abdullah, NaFisH) Mortality ranged from 20% - 60% Estimated economic losses caused by one type of pathogenic bacteria was RM 20 million (1990)







INTRODUCTION


Prevention of disease outbreaks through administration of antibiotics & chemotherapeutant



Commonly used antibiotics:
  

Tetracyclines (Oxytetracycline) Sulphonamids(Dimeton; Romet-30) Erythromycin



Increasing failure, Negative impacts (side effects) & emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the search of new therapeutic agents

INTRODUCTION


Herbal products as best alternative to antimicrobial agents Demand on plant based therapeutics is increasing in both developing and developed countries Natural products are safe, easily biodegradable, minimum environmental hazards, have no adverse effects , easily available and more dependable





CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPER BETLE
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 

Local name : Sireh (Betel) Scientific name : Piper Betle Family : Piperaceae Evergreen and perennial with glossy heart-shaped leaves Origin : Malaysia The leaves are the edible part of plant which is pungent, bitter in taste but aromatic

THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES



Use as a traditional remedies:
   

Treatment of stomach ailments Infections General tonic Chewed in combination with the betel nut (Areca catechu), as a stimulatory



In modern medicine:
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Promote healthy teeth and skin Treatment of:  Disorders of physiological function  Endo-parasites  Skin diseases  Eye diseases

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BETEL LEAF

Contain:
    

Chavibetol (Rimando et al, 1986) Chavicol (Amonkar et al, 1986) Cadinene Methyl eugenol (Nagabhushan et al, 1989) Tannin (Ramji et al, 2002)



Chavicol : the major active compound in Piper betle leaves is a powerful antiseptic

.

LITERATURE REVIEW


Scientific reports on the biological activities of crude extract of Piper betle and its constituents which include: 

Antimicrobial (Prasad et al, 1992; Garg & Jian, 1992: Baby et al, 1993, Fathilah et al, 2000, Nalina et al, 2007); Antifungal (Misra and Dixit, 1979; Evans et al, 1984), Antileishmanial potential (Sarkar et al, 2008). Antioxidant (Wang and Wu, 1996), Wound healing (Santhanam and Nagaraiam, 1990), and Antihelmintic (Evas et al, 1994)

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OBJECTIVE
To determine the antibacterial potentiality of aqueous and organic extracts of Piper betle against 10 fish pathogenic bacteria

MATERIALS AND METHODS

PLANT MATERIALS



Piper betle leaves were purchased from the local market in Kelantan & Terengganu Fresh healthy leaves washed and air dried Dried leaves shredded into small pieces & grounded The powdered betel leaves were kept in sterile plastic bags until further used

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PREPARATION OF PLANT EXTRACT
Standard methods (Bhattacharjee et. al., 2006):


SOLVENT:
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100 gm powdered leaves + 500 ml (80% methanol/ 90% ethanol); 3 days Solvents were filtered Liquid portion was concentrated using a rotary vacumn evaporator at 60 °C



AQUEOUS:
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100 gm of powdered leaves boiled in 1 liter of deionised distilled water until a final volume 100ml Extract dried overnight using a speed vacuum concentrator until no further changes in weight



Extracts...
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