Major global "religion" with complex system of beliefs.
-The Four Noble Truths
-The Noble Eightfold Path
-Karma- if you live a good life, good things will happen to you and vise versa. -Cycle of Rebirth
-Founder of Buddhism
- Lived 566 (?) - 480 (?) B.C.E.
- Son of Indian warrior/king
-Privileged but bored
- Wandered in search of understanding
- Lay at the end of all existence
- Based on interaction with an old man, an ill man, a corpse and an ascetic (hermit) - Renounced princely title
- Deprived himself of worldly possessions
- Understood how to be free from suffering and achieve salvation. - Became known as Buddha- "Enlightened One"
- Traveled and taught the remainder of his life.
The Four Noble Truths:
- Essence of Buddha's teaching
- Leave much unexplained
Truth of suffering (Dukkha) - it exists
Truth of the cause of suffering - caused by desire and ignorance Truth of the end of suffering - it has an end
Truth of the path that leads to the end of suffering - follow the Noble Eightfold Path
- Pragmatic (practical) perspective
- Deals with the world as it is
- Attempts for rectify
- Pleasure and happiness are fleeting and unquenchable
- In the end, only aging, sickness, and death are certain and unavoidable
Truth 1 & 2:
Suffering Exists & Causes of Suffering
- Desire and ignorance are the root of suffering.
- Craving pleasure, material goods, and immortality are wants that can never be satisfied. - Desire them brings suffering.
- Not seeing the world as it actually is.
- Without the ability to concentrate or have insight.
- The mind is undeveloped.
- Vices, such as greed, envy, hatred and anger.
Suffering Has An End
- Dual meaning.
- End of suffering in this life.
- End of suffering in the spiritual life-- Nirvana.
- Transcendent (supreme) state free from suffering.
- Cycle of birth and rebirth.
Path To End of Suffering
- Method for attaining the end of suffering.
- Follow the Noble Eightfold Path.
Eightfold and Three Themes:
- Good Moral Conduct
1. Right (proper) Understanding - Vision of the nature of reality. 2. Right Thought- Liberating emotional intelligence.
3. Right Speech- Uplifting and non-harmful communication.
- Meditation and Mental Development
4. Right Action- Non-exploitation of oneself and others. 5. Right Livelihood- Ethical principal of non-exploitation. 6. Right Effort- Consciously attempting creative/healing action.
-Wisdom or Insight
7. Right Mindfulness- Awareness of things, oneself, feelings, thought, people, and reality
8. Right Concentration- Varying levels of meditation.
- Born in July 2, 1877 to a family of missionaries (India) and religious publishers. - He was expected to study theology, entered the Protestant seminary in 1891 (age 14). - He was eventually expelled.
- Hesse had very bad experiences with school.
- Spent years in boarding schools in Wuerttemberg and the seminary at Maulbronn. - Good at school, especially Latin, not so much Greek.
- Not a very manageable boy.
- His first popular work reflected Hesse's disgust with the educational system. - In 1911, he visited India and became interested in Eastern religious. - His study of the ancient Hindus and Chinese led to his work Siddhartha (1922), which is believed to be a fictitious novel based on the early life of Gautama Buddha. - This was one of the major works banned by the Nazis during WWII.
When Siddhartha, the handsome and popular son of a Brahmin, becomes weary of the formal and strict ways of Hindu prayer and sacrifice, he leaves home together with Govinda, his admiring friend. They join a group of shramanas, wandering monks who live in the...