•How people make sense of the world by organizing and interpreting sensory input.
Factors Influencing Perception
•We judge people differently based on the meaning the ATTRIBUTE to their behavior, mainly, if it was internally of externally caused. •Ways to determine internal vs external:
oDistinctness – do they act differently in different situations? •Yes – external. No - internal
oConsensus – do other people behave the same way in this situation? •Yes – external. No - internal
oConsistency – does this person respond the same way over time? •Yes – internal. No – external
oKey: our perceptions of people are based on our judgments about their motive and intention.
Biases that distort whether we attribute behavior externally or internally: •Fundamental Attribution Error – underestimate external causes and overestimate internal causes of behavior.
•Self-Serving Bias – attribute successes internally and failures externally.
Shortcuts we use in judging and perceiving others:
•Selective Perception – tendency to selectively perceive what we see based on our own interests and experiences.
•Halo Effect – tendency to a general impression of someone based on a single characteristic.
•Contrast Effect – your evaluation of a person is altered because of the person who directly preceded them.
•Stereotyping – judging someone based on your perception of the group they belong to.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
•when you inaccurately characterize someone, your expectations of them may cause them to behave consistently with your perception.
Decision Making Biases:
•Overconfidence Bias – being too confident that your answers are correct. •Anchoring Bias – tendency to anchor on initial information and failing to adjust to subsequent information. •Confirmation Bias – tendency to seek information that confirms your decision and ignore information that contradicts you. •Availability Bias – tendency to base judgments on information that is readily available or recent in memory. •Escalation of Commitment – staying with a decision even when there is evidence that it is wrong because you have a lot invested in the decision. •Randomness Error – tendency to believe that you can predict the outcome of random events. •Risk Aversion – tendency to prefer a small but sure payoff instead of taking a risky payoff with a higher expected return. •Hindsight Bias – false belief that after the fact, you could have accurately predicted the outcome.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND FIT:
Big 5 Personality Traits:
•1. Openness to Experience
oExplorer vs Preserver
oJob: Peace Corps, Writing (many interests)
oFocused vs Flexible
oJob: Accounting, Professional Organizer
oExtravert vs Introvert
oHAPPIER IN JOB
oJob: Sales, Entertainment
oAdapter vs Challenger
oGOOD IN SOCIAL SETTINGS
oJob: Psychiatrist, Counselor
•5. Neuroticism / Emotional Instability
oReactive vs Resilient
oHIGH JOB SATISFACTION
oJob: 911 Operator, Hostage Negotiator
Leadership Emergence is tied to:
Leadership Effectiveness is tied to:
•Introvert vs Extravert (where you get your energy)
•Sensing vs Intuitive (how you gather information)
•Thinking vs Feeling (how you make decisions)
•Judging vs Perceiving (how you approach the world)
•How much effort is put forth to achieve organizational goals.
Performance = Motivation X Ability X Opportunity
Theories of Motivation:
•Behavior is a function of its consequences.
•Positive outcome = repeat behavior
•Negative outcome = do not repeat behavior