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BU227 – Financial Accounting
Module 1

Provided by: Laurier SOS

Things to Cover
The Accounting Environment IFRS and GAAPs Accounting’s Conceptual Framework Financial Statements Overview Recording Transactions Accrual Accounting Account’s Receivable Amortization Inventory

The Accounting System

Financial Accounting System (preparation of four basic financial statements).

Managerial Accounting System (preparation of detailed plans, forecasts and reports).

External Decision Makers (investors, creditors, suppliers, customers, etc.).

Internal Decision Makers (managers throughout the organization).

IFRS
• A common Global set of Accounting Standards • IFRS applies to: – Publically accountable enterprises – Public sector – Private enterprise and others can choose to adopt or not

Dates to Know

Opening Balance Sheet January 1, 2010

January 1, 2011 Date of Adoption

First Reporting December 31, 2011

Financial Statements
IFRS Statement of Financial Position Statement of Comprehensive Income Statement of Changes in Equity Statement of Cash Flow GAAP Balance Sheet Income Statement

Statement of Shareholder Equity Statement of Cash Flow

Auditor Responsibilities
• Auditor’s have a responsibility to general public to assess the fairness of financial statements - Ensure compliance with GAAP - Examining financial statements and transactions - Expressing an opinion as to the fairness

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
• Separate entity: Transactions of the business entity are separate from transactions of owners. • Continuity (Going Concern): The entity is expected to continue its operations into the near future (>= 1year). • Unit-of-measure: Accounting figures are reported in the national monetary unit ($). • Periodicity: The long life of a company can be reported over a series of short time periods. • The historical-cost principle requires an asset to be recorded at the historical cash-equivalent cost • The full-disclosure principle requires: – – a complete set of financial statements and notes to the financial statements that disclose other information of consequence to the users (ex. Pending Lawsuits)

Accounting Conceptual Framework
Primary Characteristics • Understandability: easy to read • Relevance: predictive value, feedback value, and timeliness. • Reliability: verifiability, representational faithfulness, and neutrality. Secondary Characteristics • Comparability: across companies. • Consistency: over time.

Accounting Objectives
Materiality – An amount large enough to affect a financial statement user’s judgment Cost-Benefit – The cost of disclosing a piece of financial information should not exceed the benefits of the disclosure Conservatism – do not overstate assets or revenues, or understate liabilities and expenses Industry standards – if industry standards dictate a certain accounting treatment for something, follow that standard

Budget
• A budget helps to coordinate business activities and the cash inflows and outflows 1) Begin with the beginning cash balance 2) Add the budgeted cash receipts and subtract the cash payments 3) This results in the expected ending cash balance • This amount can than be compared at the end of the year to see how the company performed

Cash Budget
Cash Budget for the year ended December 31, 2010

Beginning cash balance, January 1, 2010 Add Estimated Cash Recepits Collections from Customers Sale of Equipment for Cash Interest income

$ 5,105.00
$ 55,000.00 5000 300 60,300 65,405

Subtract Estimated Cash Payments Inventory Purchased Operating Expenses Payment of Liabilties

$ 42,000.00 14000 700 56,700 $ 8,705.00 $ 9,000.00

Cash Available before Financing Bugeted Cash Balance (What the company wants in cash) New Financing Needed

$

295.00

Financial Statement Relationships

ASSETS

=

LIABILITIES

+

SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Increases

SHARE CAPITAL
Increases

+

RETAINED...
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