Brinkley's a Survey of Us History Chapter 29: the Cold War

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Chapter 29: The Cold War
1) Origins of the Cold War
a) Sources of Soviet-American Tensions
i) Rivalry emerged b/c of different visions of postwar world * US foresaw world where nations got rid of traditional beliefs, such as military alliances, and used an international organization which would resolve disputes * Soviet Union sought to control areas of strategic influence  * Vaguely similar to traditional European balance of power * Churchill also envisioned this

b) Wartime Diplomacy
i) Tensions began in 1943 b/c of Allied refusal to open second front through invasion of France * at Tehran Conference, Roosevelt and Stalin formed good relationship * Stalin agreed to help US in Pacific once war with Germany was over in exchange for the opening of the second front in France * But, dispute over governance of Poland showed signs of future disagreements being clearly visible * Roosevelt and Churchill were willing to give Soviet Union some of Poland, but wanted the Polish govt in exile in GB to take control again * Stalin wanted pro communist govt to take control c) Yalta

i) Meeting of Big Three at Yalta in 1945
* In turn for Stalin’s promise to help the US out in the Pacific, Roosevelt promised Stalin land back that was lost in the Russo Japanese War * Also led to plan to create United Nations
* General Assembly and Security Council
* Every member was recognized in the General Assembly * In Security Counsel, there were 5 permanent representatives (USA, GB, France, Soviet Union, China), each of which would have veto power ii) There was also a lot of disagreement

* One was over future of Polish govt (independent and democratic vs. Communist) * Stalin eventually agreed to allowing an unspecified number of democratic Poles into the govt and consented to hold “free and unfettered elections” on an unspecified future date * Elections did not take place for more than 40 years * Another was over the future of Germany

* US wanted a reconstructed and reunited Germany
* Stalin wanted heavy reparations and to ensure a permanent dismemberment of the nation * finally agreed to commission and each Ally given German “zone” * decision on reparations would be decided at a future commission * and at an unspecified date, Germany would be reunited (but there was no agreement on how the reunification would occur * as for the future of the rest of Europe, the conference produced a murky accord that the establishments of govt’s “broadly representative of all democratic elements” and “responsible to the will of the people” * Soviet interpretations of the accords differed sharply from those of the Anglo-American interpretation * In the weeks following, Roosevelt watched with growing alarm as the Soviets raised pro communist govts all over central and eastern Europe and refused to make the changes to Poland as he promised

2) The Collapse of the Peace
a) The Failure of Potsdam
i) After Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, new Pres Truman decided US needed to “Get Tough” w Soviets to honor Yalta accords * Truman had little leverage to compel the Soviet Union to listen to him, therefore he was forced to settle with little ii) Potsdam Conference in July ended w/ Stalin receiving increased land w/ new Polish-German border * US refused to allow German reparations from other Allies’ zones to go to Soviets but US recognized new communist Polish govt under Soviet influence * Allied zones would unite as one country (West Germany) and be separate from Soviet’s part of Germany (East Germany) b) The China Problem

i) US had vision of open world “policed” by major powers * But vision troubled by unpopular and corrupt Chinese govt under Chiang Kai-shek (supported by US aid during civil war) who battled communists under Mao Zedong * By 1945, communist controlled ¼ of the...
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