A Brief History of Computer
Nikita Rechal1 and Sooriyan Aliyoglu2
1Department of Computer Engineering, Castle University, New City, Cyprus firstname.lastname@example.org
2MediDeniz Software, Old Street, New York, USA
Computers have wedged themselves into every facet of our lives—they are what we would use as the symbolic representation of the modern world. But did you know that the history of computers dates back to the 1800s?Indeed, the history and evolution of computers is quite extraordinary—and with many early computing technology innovations tied to defense contracts, much of this information were kept secret from the public for decades. In this article, we explore the development and progression of computers. Keywords
Computer, History of Computer,
History of Computer:
A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.
Mid-1800s-1930s: Early Mechanical Computers
The first computers were designed by Charles Babbage in the mid-1800s, and are sometimes collectively known as the Babbage Engines. These include the Difference Engine No. 1, the Analytical Engine, and the Difference Engine No. 2. (The Difference Engine was constructed from designs by Charles Babbage.) 1930s: Electro-Mechanical Computers
Electro-mechanical computers generally worked with relays and/or vacuum tubes, which could be used as switches. Some electro-mechanical computers—such as the Differential Analyzer built in 1930—used purely mechanical internals but employed electric motors to power them.
1940s: Electronic Computers
Colossus—whose name was fitting for its size—was developed during World War II. The first electronic computers were developed during the World War II, with the earliest of those being the Colossus. The Colossus was developed to decrypt secret German codes during the war. It used vacuum tubes and paper tape and could perform a number of Boolean (e.g. true/false, yes/no) logical operations.
Regarded as the first general purpose electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was initially commissioned for the use in World War II, but not completed until one year after the war had ended . Installed at the University of Pennsylvania, its 40 separate eight-foot-high racks and 18,000 tubes were intended to help calculate ballistic trajectories.
A gigantic computerized air defense system, SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) was designed to help the Air Force track radar data in real time. Equipped with technical advances such as modems and graphical displays, the machine weighed 300 tons and occupied one floor of a concrete blockhouse.
NEAC 2203, 1960
Manufactured by the Nippon Electric Company (NEC), the drum-based machine was one of the earliest transistorized Japanese computers. It was used for business, scientific and engineering applications.
IBM System/360, 1964
Part of a family of interchangeable computers, the IBM System/360 mainframe was the first to cover a complete range of applications, from small to large, from commercial to scientific. Users were able to enlarge or shrink their setup without having to make headache-inducing software upgrades as well. Higher-end System/360 models had roles in NASA's Apollo missions as well as air traffic control systems.
CDC 6600, 1964
For a time the fastest machine in the world, Control Data Corporation's 6600 machine was designed by noted computer architect Seymour...
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