Botany Notes

Topics: Phloem, Plant anatomy, Root Pages: 13 (2893 words) Published: January 29, 2013
Energy Budget of plants:
Plants are the source of energy for all of us and all living things on earth. Energy is the currency of the universe = $ (work)
* Energy budget= must be balanced
Energy budget
* Plants collect and process energy
* Basic source SUN
* Diffuse – need to collect a lot to get fixed energy
* (sugar)- LEAVES = solar collector
* Everything must be paid for and pay for itself over time

Plants are sentient beings
* Perceive environment and respond to it appropriately
* Plants grow in response to: the wind, sunlight, root growth * Autotrophs- Photosynthesis
* Heterotrophs- eat (engulf, ingest, absorb)
* “see at many wavelengths of light” specifically detect, identify colors. * Detect and respond to pressure- (physical= wind, touch, other plants,) * Efficient elegancy designed for life as a photosynthetic autotroph

Senses of a plant
“see”- light, many wavelengths
“hear”- respond to different frequency of sound
“feel”- respond to physical pressure wind weight
“smell”- respond to molecules in the air
“taste”- wet surfaces of cell membranes
Biological- design of living beings and function of parts and pieces whole organisms

* Self feeding
* Photosynthetic light putting together collecting lightsugaroil, proteins, pigments, enzymes

Concentrators of Energy
Original source of energy in the universe, sun
* Energy released from molecules coming apart explosively= electrons in light * To use this energy we need: solar collectors
Solar collectors:
* Leaves= most variable organ in plants
* Plants look the way they do and they dont move around because: to be successful in PS autotroph Plants have indeterminate growth
* Keep growing their whole life- constantly:
* Making new roots, stems, leaves.

What do plants take to survive?:
1. Sunlight
2. Surface area leaves >> solar collectors
3. Stability root system >> anchor + absorb h20 and minerals 4. Continuous ability to grow & respond to the environment In determinant growth 5. Strength resist gravity>> leaves project to the sunlight 6. Material light but very strong material adjustable for different parts of the plants 7. Cellulose (unique to plants) Fibers overlap (ie: radial tires) with varying thicknesses * Cellulose and other plant materials are flexible, can adopt to new situations * Requires no additional energy once produced

* Bacteria digest cellulose
* Sugar and cellulose have the same chemical formula:
C6 H12 O6
8. Cells- fundamental building blocks of plant organs= roots, stems, leaves 9. Cell wall- all primary, some have a secondary wall (unique to plants) 10. Cell membrane- (plasmolemma)- living >>

* Membranes Controls entry and exit in & out of cell of organelles 11. Vacuole- membrane bound, filled with aqueous fluid
* > 95% of plant cell volume
* Pigments
* Waste product recycling collection toxins
12. Nucleus- control center for DNA – chromosomes
* surrounded by a double membrane with membrane lined pores 13. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubular (double) membrane system- continuous (connects) with nuclear membrane (double), throughout cell and through Plasmodesmata. 14. Cytoplasm- Ribosomes attached (rough ER) or be smooth ER 15. Plasmodesmata- connect to each other (living) 100’s of these per cell, connect one cell to the next 16. Symplast- a continuum consisting of the cytoplasm of many plant cells, connected to the next by plasmodesmata. 17. Chloroplasts- 100’s per cell in leaves, own DNA, RNA, proteins self-replicating share info with nucleus, independent * Double membrane bound folded inner membrane- thylakoids * Double membranes- take apart big chunks in liquid portion folded * Cristae- release energy in...
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