Bones Study Guide

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Chapter 6 Study Guide

1. List and describe the major functions of the skeletal system.  Elaborate. Support: the framework that supports the body and cradles the organs. Protection: surrounds the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs. Movement: bones are levers for muscles. Minerals: bones store calcium and phosphate.

2. Compare the axial skeleton with the appendicular skeleton. Axial: forms the long axis of the body and include the bones of the skull, vertebral column and the rib cage. Appendicular: consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and shoulders and hip bones.

3. How are bones classified?  Provide examples.
They are classified by their shape: long, short, or irregular 4. What is the physiological relationship between bones and muscles? Muscles attaches bones and helps with movement and stability in the body 5. Which type of cartilage is most common in the human?

Hyaline
6. Gross Anatomy: Diagram and describe the structure of a long bone.   Label the parts and describe the structure of each. 7. What membrane lines the internal canals and covers the trabeculae of the spongy bone? Endosteum membrane

8. Microscopic Anatomy: Compare and contrast spongy and compact bone.
Compare and contrast the cell types ( - clasts, - blasts and cytes for both cartilage and bone) Spongy bone is the internal while the compact are the external layer. Osteogenic cells are the stem cell of the bones. The osteoblast are the matrix-synthesizing cell that is responsible for bone growth while the osteocyte is mature bone cells that monitor and maintain the mineralized bone matrix. Osteocytes are bone reabsorbing cells.

9. What two types of substances are stored in bone?
Red and yellow bone marrows
10. Where are red and yellow bone marrow found in an adult?/ in a child? Red marrow is found in the trabecular cavities of the spongy bone specifically of long bones and in diploe of flat bones while yellow...
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