Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: Changes in physical conditions in the environment - Some animals do not survive changes in the environment and become extinct or endangered. Changes in physical conditions such as climate ad exposure to fire has led to changes in flora (Australia drifts north)
Changed in chemical conditions in the environment - pH of environment can be critical to functioning of enzymes and metabolism. Organisms called Acidophiles have evolved to be able to survive acidic environments such as sulfuric pools. Increase in oxygen levels. As a result, aerobic respiration and animal life became possible. Increase in o2 led to ozone. Competition for resources - Occurs between food, shelter and partners. The dingo increased competition for food for the tasmanian tigers. Dingo’s were more efficient, leading to the extinction of the tiger. Global warming - ice caps. Plants are competing for light.
Describe, using specific examples, how the theory of evolution is supported by the following areas of study: Paleontology - Fossils provide a record over time of how living things have evolved. Fossils that are considered transitional fossils are those that have feature that make them an immediate form between organisms. Provide more evidence for change. Eg: Seen ferns have both features of ferns and gymnosperms. Biogeography - Zones such as the arctic zone. Specific environmental factors. Patterns provide evidence of originated ancestors. Comparative embryology - Embryo’s have different species but are similar. Vertebrate embryo’s have gill arches, notochords, spinal cord and primitive kidneys. Same skin. Comparative anatomy - Different species have same basic structure. Eg: Limbs of mammals.
Explain how Darwin/Wallace’s theory of evolution by natural selection and isolation accounts for divergent evolution and convergent evolution: Natural selection states that those...