Bleaching of crude palm oil (CPO)
Bleaching of crude palm oil will be carried out using a mass ratio of 1 synthesized adsorbent to 11 CPO. The CPO in bottle is well shaken before pouring into beaker with an amount of 110 grams. Magnetic stirrer is put into the beaker contains CPO and continuously stirred until it reaches 100 °C. After that, 6 drops of phosphoric acid is added into CPO followed by the addition of 10 grams synthesized adsorbent. The adsorbent must be poured slowly to ensure it mixed well with CPO and prevent numerous bubbles formed. Then, the mixture is heated until it reaches 150 °C and allows stirring vigorously for an hour until bleaching is completed. Filtration
After bleaching is done, the spent adsorbent is separated from the bleached palm oil (BPO) by filtration using filter paper no.50. Filtration will be carried out in the oven at the temperature of 80 °C for a period of 22 hours. Once the BPO is filtered, the spent adsorbent is collected for regeneration. Soxhlet extraction for adsorbent regeneration
Two boiling chips are added into the flat bottom flask and weighed. Then, hexane is poured into the flat bottom flask until it is half full. Teflon tape is applied on the bottom end of siphon and condenser before fitting the apparatus. This is to prevent the released of hexane gas during the experiment. The wrapped adsorbent is then placed inside the thimble before putting it over the soxhlet extractor for extraction. Vertical condenser is the connected on the upper under of the soxhlet extractor. Two water pipes are connected on the entrance and exit of the condenser for the purpose of cooling the condensate. The flow rate of water must be adjusted until a smooth flow is seen which adversely means no bubble is suspected over the condenser tube. Hexane is then heated up to the temperature of 200 °C for 6 hours or until all the oil has been extracted. After that, the slurry (oil+ hexane) is dried in the oven at 105 °C for an hour to...
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