BIOS275, Week 2 HW
6. Differentiate between the I.V. push, I.V. drip and I.V. piggyback methods of administration. An I.V. push refers to using a port in the tubing to administer drugs in a shorter amount of time. An I.V. drip refers to the practice of injecting a drug into the fluid of a large I.V. bag and administering it continuously throughout several hours. An I.V. piggyback refers to the practice of injecting a drug into a small I.V. bag of fluid that is then attached to or ‘piggybacked’ onto an existing I.V. line.
9. What is meant by the phrase first-pass effect? The first-pass effect refers to the initial metabolism of a drug by the liver when the drug is taken orally. From there it is absorbed from the intestines and then into the portal vein and lastly to the liver before entering general circulation.
11. What is the function of the blood-brain barrier? The blood-brain barrier is an existing network between the capillary walls of blood vessels in the brain and surrounding tissues.
1. Describe the difference between local and systemic drug effects. A locally effected drug is limited to the area of administration and the tissues in the immediate area. These include topical drugs. A systemic effect on the other hand is felt throughout the entire body. These include orally taken drugs.
5. How does a toxic effect differ from a side effect? A toxic effect is an effect that occurs when serum levels rise above the therapeutic level, thus becoming a poison to the body. This is also known as toxicity.
8. Describe the lock-and-key concept as it pertains to a drug and a receptor. Drugs or "Keys" work on specific receptors "locks" and produce certain effects when binding with them. If the drug given is designed to have a different effect, it cannot bind to the receptor.
9. Give an example of a synergistic drug-drug interaction and of an antagonistic drug-drug interaction. A synergistic drug interaction...