1.Organisms that can manufacture their own chemical energy sources are called _____________.
2.________ depend on energy stored in chemical bonds by autotrophs for their food energy.
3.Simple molecules are further broken down in cells in a process called _________, during which energy stored in their chemical bonds is used to power the production of ATP.
4.Glucose is broken down to carbon dioxide and water in organisms which breathe air in a process called as ________ respiration.
5.In glycolysis, a major portion of the energy remains in the final product, which is called ________.
6.For further derivation of energy, aerobic cells must convert pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A by stripping off a C02 molecule. This process is known as ___________.
7.All of the reactions of glucose oxidation that follow glycolysis involving the transfer of electrons to their final acceptor, oxygen, take place in eukaryotic cells in the ___________.
8.Because the chemical formation of ATP is driven by a diffusion force similar to osmosis, this process is referred to as ___________.
9.The return of the protons into the mitochondrial matrix through mitochondrial membrane channels occurs by the process of _________.
10.The amino acids must be first __________ before they can be used in catabolic reactions.
11.Fats undergo a process called ____ oxidation, in which the products are acetyl coenzyme molecules.
12.The first stage of cellular respiration,______________, occurs with or without oxygen present.
13.When oxygen is limiting, during heavy exercise, muscle cells revert to ________________ fermentation for energy production.
14.A molecule that stores energy by linking charged phosphate groups near each other is called A.ATP
15.An electron carrier that is used in harvesting energy from glucose molecules in a series of gradual steps in the cytoplasm is A.pyruvate
16.In eukaryotes, the glycolytic reactions take place in the A.mitochondria of the cell
B.cytoplasm of the cell
C.ribosomes of the cell
D.endoplasmic reticulium of each cell
E.Golgi bodies of the cell
17.The first stage of cellular respiration, and the oldest in terms of evolution is A.decarboxylation
18.In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen atoms generated by glycolysis are donated to organic molecules in a process called A.fermentation
D.electron transport chain reactions
19.At least 90% of organisms on the earth are heterotrophs. Examples include all of the following except A.plants
20.In digestion, which is a prelude to metabolism, all of the following occur except A.carbohydrates are degraded to sugars
B.proteins are degraded into amino acids
C.lipids are degraded to fatty acids
D.water is degraded into hydrogen and oxygen
E.all of these occur
21.Fermentation can be described as a process
A.that takes place only in the absence of oxygen
B.in which the recipient of hydrogen atoms is an organic molecule C.in which water is not one of the by-products
D.in which the Krebs cycle and electron transfer through ETS do not occur E.all of the above are true
22.Chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by
A.phosphate transfer through the plasma membrane
B.sodium, potassium pump
C.a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial membrane D.osmosis of macromolecules
E.large quantities of ADP
23.The reaction, C6H6O6 + 6O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, when it occurs in living cells is known as A....