Biology Terms

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Abiotic A term-that describes a nonliving factorin an ecosystem. Active Transport -The movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration that uses energy provided by ATP or a difference in electrical charges across a cell membrane. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and processes. ATP releases energy when one of its high‐energy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group. Adhesion The intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules. Capillary action results from the adhesive properties ofwater and the molecules that make up plant cells. Agriculture The artificial cultivation of food, fiber, and other goods by the systematic growing and harvesting of various organisms. Allele A variation of a gene’s nucleotide sequence (an alternative form of a gene). Allele Frequency The measure ofthe relative frequency of an allele at a genetic locusin a population; expressed as a proportion orpercentage. Analogous Structure A physical structure, present in multiple species,that is similar in function but different in form and inheritance. Aquatic A term that describes an organism associated with a water environment. Atom The smallest unit of an element that retainsthe chemical and physical properties ofthat element. Biochemical Conversion The changing of organicmatterinto other chemicalformssuch asfuels. Bioenergetics The study of energy flow (energy transformations)into and within living systems.Keystone Exams:Biology Biogeochemical Cycles Themovement of abiotic factors between the living and nonliving components within ecosystems; also known asnutrient cycles(i.e., water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, and nitrogen cycle). Biological Macromolecules A group of biomacromoleculesthatinteract with biologicalsystems and their environments. Biology The scientific study oflife.

Biome A large area or geographical region with distinct plant and animal groups adapted to that environment. Biosphere The zone of life on Earth; sum total of all ecosystems on Earth. Biotechnology Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products orProcesses for specific use. This term is commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of many applications. Biotic A term that describes a living or once‐living organism in an ecosystem. Carbohydrate A macromolecule that contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio and serves as a major source ofenergy for living organisms(e.g.,sugars,starches, and cellulose). Carrier(Transport) Proteins Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane involved in the movement of ions,small molecules, and macromoleculesinto and out of cells; also known astransport proteins. Catalyst A substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate or under different conditions(e.g., lower temperature)than otherwise possible without being changed by the reaction. Cell The basic unit o fstructure and function for all living organisms. Cells have three common components: genetic material,cytoplasm, and a cell membrane. Eukaryotic cells also contain specialized organelles . Cell Cycle The series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. The main phases o fthe cell cycle areinterphase, nuclear division, and cytokinesis. Cellular Respiration A complex set of chemical reactions involving an energy transformation where potential chemical energy in thebonds of “food”molecules is released and partially captured in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)molecules. Chloroplast An organelle found in plant cells and the cells of other eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms where photosynthesis occurs. Chromosomal Mutation A change in the structure of a chromosome (e.g., deletion, the loss of a segment of a chromosome and thus the loss of segment containing genes; duplication, when a segment of a chromosome is duplicated...
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