Biology Revision

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 91
  • Published : November 29, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
Majeed Thaika
Year 10-11

-------------------------------------------------
Contents
1 Cells…………………………………………………………………….…..pg-05 -Animal and plant cells (pg-05)
-Specialised cells (pg-06)
-diffusion (pg-07)
-osmosis (pg-08)

2 Plants…………………………………………………………..………….pg-09 -photosynthesis (pg-09)
-Factors affecting photosynthesis (pg-10)
-Plants and minerals (pg-11)

3 Food Chains and Cycles………………………...………………….pg-12 -Food chain (pg-12)
-Energy transfer (pg-13)
-Pyramids of biomass (pg-15)
-efficiency of food production (pg-15)
-calculating energy efficiency (pg-16)
Shorter food chains (pg-16)
-carbon cycle (pg-17)

4Enzymes and Digestion…………………………………………….pg-18 -What are enzymes? (Pg-18)
-Temperature and enzymes (Pg-18)
-Ph and enzymes (Pg-19)
-enzymes and respiration (Pg-20)
-digestive system (Pg-20)
-Enzymes and digestion (Pg-21)
-Other substances in digestion (Pg-22)
-Enzymes in industry (Pg-23)

5Homeostasis……………………………………………….…………...pg-24 -Removing waste products (Pg-24)
-Controlling blood glucose (Pg-25)
-Diabetes (Pg-25)
-Temperature regulation (Pg-26)
- Temperature regulation – Higher (Pg-26)

6Hormones……..……………………………………………..………….pg-27 -Hormones and glands (pg-28)
-hormones in the menstrual cycle (pg-29)
-Controlling fertility (pg-31)

7The Nervous System…….………………………..………………….pg-31 -receptors and effectors (pg-31)
-Neurones (pg-33)
-Reflex action (pg-34)

8Defending against infection…..…………………………….…..pg-35 -pathogens-bacteria (pg-35)
-pathogens-virus (pg-36)
-white blood cells (pg-36)
-more about white blood cells (pg-37)
-vaccination (pg-38)
-antibiotics (pg-38)

9Diet and Exercise…………………………………………..………….pg-40 -nutrients (pg-40)
-metabolic rate(pg-41)
-the right amount of food (pg-41)
-cholesterol(pg-42)
-salt (pg-43)

10Adaptation…………………..………………………...……………….pg-43 -Adaptation-cold climates (pg-43)
-Adaptation-hot climates (pg-44)

11Characteristics and Classification……………………….…..pg-45 -genetic engineering (pg-45)
-selective breeding (pg-45)
-changing the characteristics of a species (pg-46)
-classification (pg-47)
-difficulties with classification (pg-48)

12The Heart.……………………………………………………..………….pg-49 -the circulatory system (pg-49)
-arteries and veins (pg-50)
-the heart (pg-50)
-causes of heart disease (pg-51)

13Extra............................................................................….....pg-51 -sex hormones (pg-51)
-competition (pg-52)
-The nitrogen cycle
-the water cycle

Cells
All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Note that cells may be specialized to carry out a particular function.

Dissolved substances pass into and out of cells by diffusion. Water passes into and out of cells by osmosis. Animal and plant cells
Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common:- Part| Function|
nucleus| contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell| cytoplasm| most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes| cell membrane| controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell| mitochondria| most energy is released by respiration here| ribosomes| protein synthesis happens here|

Extra parts of plant cells:-
Part| Function|
cell wall| strengthens the cell|
chloroplasts| contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis| permanent vacuole| filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid|

Diagram: Generalized animal and plant cell

Specialised cells
Cells may be specialized for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples:

Examples of the functions of cells:-

Cell| Function| Adaption|

Leaf cell| Absorbs light energy for...
tracking img