What is lifetime risk of getting cancer for men and women in US? Male-1:2
Which cancer are men mostly likely to get in the US? Women?
Which cancers are the most deadly and least deadly (US)?
Most deadly- Lung
Least deadly- non-melanoma skin cancer
Name the cell-types that define carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, and leukemia’s. Which type is most common? Carcinomas- glands, organs and tissues, arise from epithelial cell lining external and internal body surfaces; most common cancer Sarcomas- connective tissues (fat, bone, muscle)
Lymphomas- lymph nodes
Describe and identify normal tissues, tissues undergoing hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. What is the general progression of cancer at this tissue level? Hyperplasia- more cells than normal but still organized
Dysplasia- more cells that normal but not organized
Carcinoma in situ- severe dysplasia. it is still pre-cancer, benign tumor.
Use the car analogy to describe the basic differences between oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene mutations in the development of cancer. 1. Turning on oncogens (go signals, step on gas, gas petal is stuck, stuck accelerator) 2. Losing tumor suppressor (cutting the brakes)
3. Becoming immortal/immortalization (endless tank of gas)
4. Loss of apoptosis- loss of cell destruction, cells don’t die 5. angiogenesis- growth of new blood cells
6. invasion/metastasis- spread of cancer to distant sites
What is telomerase and how does it relate to the development of cancer/cell immortality? Allows cell growth
What is angiogenesis and how does it relate to cancer progression? Cancer cells promote new blood supply to feed growing tumor
What is apoptosis and how does it relate to cancer progression? Normal cell death
Mutations in cancer cells enable cell to bypass cellular safeguard mechanisms that normally eliminate damaged or unwanted cells
What is metastasis and how does it relate to cancer progression? Cancer cells acquire the capability to invade surrounding tissues, migrate to distant sites, and grow secondary cancerous lesions.
How are tumors graded and staged? How does the stage and grade related to prognosis? Tumor grade refers to histological appearance (abnormality of cell and tissue structure). Low grades (I and II) cells and tissues have fewer abnormalities compared to grade III and IV) Tumor stage refers to tumor progression
i. Has tumor invaded surrounding tissue? ii. Has tumor invaded local lymph nodes? iii. Has cancer spread to distant body regions? iv. High stage decreases survival chances.
Describe the differences between a retrospective and prospective study. Retrospective studies:
Look at past exposures and the occurrence of disease
Rely on medical histories and participant recall
Compare factors of people with the disease with those without disease (control group) Advantage: Quick,data already exists
Disadvantage: Data subject to recall bias and hard to identify all confounding factors Prospective studies (cohort studies)
Study populations prior to onset of disease
Divide into those exposed to potential carcinogen (experimental group) and those not exposed (control group) Monitor the relative onset of cancer between groups
Advantage: Easier to control variables
Disadvantage: Large sample sizes and time needed for studies
What is random fluctuation and how does it relate to sample size and P values when setting up an experiment? Random Fluctuation:
Data could be explained by chance
Need large sample size
Statistical significance: Real difference not due to random fluctuation P value: The...