Biology Notes

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1.Phospholipid: Molecule that forms a double-layered cell membrane; consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group; and two fatty acids. 2.Selectively permeable (Semi): Condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials cross a barrier or membrane. 3.Receptor: Protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response. 4.Diffusion: Movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. 5.Osmosis: Diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 6.Passive Transport: Movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell. 7.Active Transport: Energy requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentrations to a region of higher concentration. 8.Facilitated Transport (Diffusion): Diffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane. 9.Exocytosis: Release of substances pit a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane. 10.Endocytosis: Uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane. 11.Isotonic: Solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution. 12.Krebs Cycle: Process during cellular respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the election transport chain. 13.Calvin Cycle: Process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2. 14.Mitochondria: Bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosome and DNA. 15.tRNA: Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein. 16.mRNA: Is an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein. 17.RNA: Nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis. DNA… A-T, G-C...
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